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(.BJdaa.* 33aj»tonc«J. Fxlz* E« 




(Mary Jane Katzmann.) 



^/lOR-^or^J & co. 

1'iuniM.ixi HnnK Sihki:. 

Entered aciordiiiB to Act cii Parliament of Canada, in the Office of the 
Minister of Agriculture, at Ottawa, in the year one thousand eight hundred 
and ninety-three, by the Board of Governors of King's College, Windsor, N. S. 

Nova Scotia Printing Co. HAiiFAy. 






Thk present history of a portion of the County of Hahfax, 
Nova Scotia, was prepared a few years ago by the late Mrs. 
William La\vson,whohad long been well known as a contributor 
of verse to the papers of the day. It was written rather hastily, 
in order to compete for the Akins Historical I'rize of 1887, 
which was awarded to it by King's College, Windsor. This 
unavoidable rapidity will account for the necessity of several 
changes which have been made before sending it to the 
printer, and also for any defects which still remain. The 
alterations have been made chiefly with a view to gain belter 
order and more accuracy. 

Mrs. Lawson, formerly Mary Jane Katzmann, was born and 
lived for many years in the neighbourhood of Preston, and her 
mother's family likewise resided in the same place. She there- 
fore had an opportunity, such as few others have had, of 
collecting the chronicles of the surrounding district. This she 
did to a certain extent in a scries of articles entitled "Tales of 
Our Village " which appeared in The Provincial, a magazine 
which had been edited by her about forty years ago. In 
that series, however, names of persons and places were not 
mentioned, and the stories were interwoven with much material 
which was avowedly fictitious. Afterwards when the Akins 
I'rize was oftered, she was stimulated to write a more extensive 
and accurate history, with the present result. He who desires 
an ornate account, will consult The Provincial ; he who wishes 
fo have only such information as is authentic, will find it in this 

In writing the history of townships like Dartmouth, Preston, 
and Lawrencetown, the author, owing to the narrowness of the 
field, has frequently to treat of subjects which would not be 
touched in a more comprehensive account. This necessity of 
dealing with minutia; leads to the introduction of tales and other 
minor traditions, which often have greater interest than a less 
particular narrative, as the details of a novel possess more 
charms than a discription of the plot alone or a mere re'stime oi 
the story. The annals of Dartmouth and its sister townships. 



contain several tales of a by-gone age, whose recital has often 
brought tears to humble eyes and which may yet have a charm 
for a more general and critical audience. He whom they 
interest not, has no love for local history, nor the simple legends 
which lend a fascination and glow of romance to any locality, 
and which make the sympathetic hearer loiter about a hallowed 
spot with feelings no ordinary man of the world can understand. 

The preservation of the stories of the ill-fated relative of the 
Empress Eugenie, the mysterious Margaret Floyer and the 
French Ciovernor, the tragic death of poor Mary Russell, the 
sad fates of the Meagher and Jones children, and the two 
Smiths, together with the accounts of other minor occurrences, 
is owing, doubtless, to the pen of Mrs. Lawson, who when but 
a girl had often listened with rare attention to their recital 
during the long winter evenings at Maroon Hall. These tales 
possibly constitute the pCue <ie resistance of the present book, 
and it was to a great extent their presence which first sug- 
gested to me the desirability of publication. 

In preparing the history for the press, I have endeavoured 
to revise the manuscript in the manner in which the author 
herself no doubt would have done before finally committing it 
to the printer. An attempt has been made, as far as lay in my 
power, to verify the whole matter, especially the dates. 
Where the latter were often not mentioned, I have made great 
efforts to obtain them, and if unquestionable, they have been 
inserted directly in the text. The greatest caution, however, 
has been exercised in doing this, and where doubt existed, 
the dates have been usually placed in the footnotes. These 
searches have often cost actually days of diligent investigation, 
the result of merely appears as a few figures. The 
satisfaction, however, of any additional exactness which might 
be so obtained, is alone sufficient reward for all such trouble. 
With still more time, many other unmentioned dates and 
additional information could have been obtained. 

I have striven in every way, however, conscientiously to 
retain inviolable the author's work, save where faithfulness to 
truth or the principles of style rendered it unquestionably 
desirable to make slight changes. Such changes would have 


been no doiiht insoitcd by tlip aiitlior herself if time had been 
available in wliicli lo rcvi-e innrc tlioroiighly the manuscript- 
Before making' alterations of the first kind, they hn'»» usually 
been veritic<l in two nr three ways. 

The history of I'reston was founri to contain several narra- 
tions-such as the tales of Margaret Floycr, Mary Russell, 
and the Jones children - which undoubtedly belong to that of 
Dartmouth. The liberty has been taken to transfer these to 
their correct places. Maroon Mall also was situated just 
without the Preston boundary according to the original grant, 
and its history therefore in truth belongs to that of the sister 
township, but as the old house was so very intimately connected 
with the fonrer district, it was considered absurd to alter its 
place in the volume. The story of the Meagher children has 
likewise been suffered to remain in the account of Prestoni 
under a similar but somewhat less justifiable plea. The 
details relating to the Montagu gold district will also be found 
in this township. A number of minor portions have been 
placed in a more systematic order, and the whole has been 
divided into chapters which will somewhat facilitate reference. 
As has been mentioned in one of the footnotes, the account of 
VVaverley, although altogether irrelevant to the subject, has not 
been excluded, as it no doubt contains useful information. 

The space bestowed by the author upon some subjects 
is rather disproportionate to that devoted to others. For 
example, the account of that very worthy and remarkable 
man, Titus Smith, — one who has never received sufficient 
applause,— is possibly somewhat lengthy under the circum- 
stances, and carries one altogether out of the township, yet 
no one surely would cavil at an extended notice of this 
unassuming naturalist, a full biography of whom is a great 
desideratum. Such a biography would be laden with numer- 
ous interesting anecdotes. For the present, many will be 
pleased with the extensive sketch contained herein. A similar 
instance will be found in the particulars of the Morris family, 
and in a few other portions of the volume. All of these 
examples of unusual repleteness can very easily be pardoned, 
for such information is useful and should be preserved, — 



csiicrially in a history like the present, which has to deaf 
largely with details. 

The account of the old ferries was altogether erroneous and 
had to be entirely re-written from new material. It was also 
found that no notice had lieen taken of the Roman Catholic, 
i'reshyterian, Methodist, and Haptist Churches, save in a single 
l)araj,'ra|/h. Sketches of these had therefore to be prepared. 
Of course the reader has been apprised in the footnotes of 
such insrrtions. Whenever possible, the general history has 
been brought down to the present date — Mrs. Lawson's essay 
having concluded with the year 1887. Some might think this 
unnecessary, but it must be considered that such portions as 
are of recent date will some day be the history of long ago. 

In lieu of a map, the positions of the various places men- 
tioned, are usually described with as much exactness as 
possible in the footnotes, or by the introduction of n word or 
two in the text itself. 

In the course of my revisal of the work, I have consulted a 
mass of old records, and interviewed many of the older 
residents. The history could have been much amplified, but 
my range was necessarily limited by the scope of the original 
manuscript. With these restrictions in view, I have laboured 
impartially and conscientiously at the book, in an endeavour 
to make it as far as possible one which I myself in the future 
can take from my shelf with a confidence engendered by 
verilication. My portion of the work I fully know could have 
been done much better by many other men, and therefore 
some .ipology is necessary for the result I, however, have been 
honestly interested in the laljour, which has been accomplished 
as well as my abilities allowed. My best, is no doubt other 
men's poorest ; but possiljly faults and errors which were 
entirely undesigned will be pardoned through the leniency of 
the reader rather than because of their own fewness. I shall 
be much pleased if the critic finds anything whatever to 
approve of in my part ; Mrs. Lawson's requires little or no 

'' St(xnyaH;' Halifax J II.ARRY PlERS. 

Sth December, iSgj. 




WHEN in th. 
sloop S2)h 

the month of Jmu', 1749, the wnr- 
Hnx suiled up Chelucto Bay, fol- 
lowed l.y thirteen tian.sports, a wonderful 
panorama of wood and water met the e^-es of the 
mariners and weary emi^rrants. One month before, 
they had left behind them the coast of England, and 
the beauty of that dear ol.l land was still 
in their memories. Its smiling Holds and happy 
homesteads hel.l all they loved the best; the new 
country was brightened by pos,sibilities alone. We 
can well imagine the mingled feelings of hope and 
apprehension which must have stinvd their hearts as 
they entered the harbour which has since become 
so familiar and so dear to their descendants. 

On that early summer morning, the rocky shore 
of Sambro, with its rough headlands so often beaten 



by boisterous waves, lay calm and peaceful beneath 
the rising sun. The many coves and other inlets, 
now known to us by long-familiar names, were full 
of freshness and variety. Ketch Harbour, Purcell's, 
Portuguese and Herring Coves, unknown to story and 
undisturbed by man, were nestling in their beauti- 
ful surroundings, reflecting the graceful images of 
the drooping trees on the banks above. McNab's, 
George's, and Lawlor's Islands, covered with forest 
trees and herbage of the most delicate green, rose up 
like emerald mounds in a setting of amethyst. The 
North-West Arm, that picturesque extension of the 
sea, was coquetting with the golden-tinted clouds in 
the heavens above. The circular elevation, which 
for more than a hundred years has borne the chief 
fortification of Halifax, rose stately to the westward, 
crowning the lessening distance, and clothed with a 
mass of variegated forest which displayed every 
variety of green, from that of the dusky pine to the 
tender tint of the larch tassels. We are told that the 
thick woods grew down to the water's edge. The 
aspens trembled in the languid south wind ; the 
wild fruit trees lifted their sweet, snowy blossoms 
to the sun. Birch and beech trees, with here and 
there an oak, towered above the alders of le-sser 
size, and contrasted with the firs and spruces thickly 
set together. The undergrowth of ferns, vines, 


1 beneath 
ler inlets, 
were full 
story and 
r beau ti- 
llages of 
h forest 

rose up 
5t. The 
1 of the 
ouds in 

e chief 
with a 

to the 
lat the 
; the 
e and 

mosses, and blossoming wild-flowers were spread 
as a carpet. The mayflower had faded in its cool 
mossy bed. but the frail iinna^a drooped its bells as' 
the summer winds rifled them of their fragrance. 
All nature gave a glad and welcoming smile to the 
brave „,en who ha<J crossed the sea to make a home 
in the new land. 

When all the ships had arrived, the intending 
settlers held council, and proceeded to decide what 
spot should be the site of their future dwelling places 
Some advised its location near the end of the penin- 
sular, m the vicinity of what is now known as Point 
Pleasant. A larger number were in favour of the 
eastern shore, where now lies the township of 
Dartn.outh, thinking its pxsition more picturesque 
and suitable* Finally, however, the site where the 
present city stands was chosen, and the name 
Halifax was given to the place in honour of the 
president of the Lonls of Trade and Plantation.. 
Soon the stately trees which had long stood as the 


guardians of the soil, fell fast under the axes wielded 
by the strong arms of the English pioneers, who 
lived under canvas and in rough shanties hastily 
put up for temporary occupation. The work of 
clearing and building went on vigorou.sly, and by 
the middle of October some hundreds of houses were 
in course of erection, and many had been completed. 
The town had been laid out and divided into blocks 
and streets, and the settlers comfortably housed,- 
before the forest on the opposite side of the harbour 
was invaded.* The latter was then the home and 
huntinor-ground of the Mlcmac Indians. This tribe 

•.Shortly after the settlement of Halifax, Major Oilman erected 
a saw-mill in Dartmouth Cove. It was iloubtlcss situated on the 
stream which flows from the Dartmouth Lakes, but the exact site 
I have been unable to ascertain. Tiie land laid out for the saw- 
mill appears under the name of E/ekiel Oilman, on an old plan in 
the Department of Crown Lands, Halifax. The boundary of the 
plot began on the above stream, at a spot close to the present 
Prpsbytei ian Church, or about tiiirty chains from Collins's Point, 
near the Chebucto Marine Railway. From thence it ran north 
65° east, about sixty chains ; thence north 3.j° west for about 
forty-two chains ; thence south 55' west, for seventy-two and a 
half chains ; thence south 3.5° east, for about fifty chains, or until 
it reached the stream before-mentioned. This embraced half of the 
First Lake, and land to the south cast and south-west of it. A 
plan of the Harbour of Chebucto and Town of Hulifax, which 
appeared in The Getilleman's Mafjazine ior Ju\y, 1750 (piige 295), 
shows three streams falling into Daitinouth Cove. The middle one 
of these is called "Saw Mill River." This name was probably 
intended to have been applied to the most northern of the three, 
and the transposition may have been an error of the draughtsman. 
A building marked " Major Gilniot's " (Oilman's?) appears near 


had for generations wandered through the woods on 
either side of Chebucto Harbour, the original owners 
and masters of the great wilderness around them. 

A few years before the arrival of Cornwallis, the 
harbour had been visited by a portion of the fever- 
stricken French fleet, under the command of Nicolas 
de la Rochefoucauld, Due d'Anville, which had 
anchored in Bedford Basin. The English, hear- 
ing of this from some fishermen on the coast, 
came into the harbour in search of the vessels, 
but believ'ing that navigation terminated at 
the Narrows, they did not discover the position 

the end of the point named Warren's Point on tlie plan, but 
since known as Collins's Point. On Sivturdny, 30th September, 
O. S., 1749, six men, without arms, were cutting wood near 
Gibnan's mill. The Indians attacked them, killing four and 
carrying off one. The sixth man escaped. On 30th April, 1750, 
Cornwallis writes, that he never had one Iward from the 
saw-mill. " It hns been," he says, " my conHtant plague from 
the begintiing ; thirty men have been constantly kept there 
ever since the afTitir of the Indians." Between April and July, 
1750, Oilman gave up the mill, and it was let to Capt. William 
Clapham. In June, 175*2, the government mills at Dartmouth 
were sold at auction, for £310, to Major Ezekiel Oilman. During 
the winter of 174'J-5(), the storeship Duke of Bidford and an 
armed sloop, were anchored in Dartmouth Cove, and the ice 
was broken around them every night in order to prevent the 
approach of the Indians. They were also within " Gun Shot of the 
Fort at the Sawmill." (See MS. Minutes of Council, Sunday, 7th 
January, 1750). According to Dr. Akins, the ships were under 
cover of a gun which was mounted on a point near the saw-mill. 
This, I suppose, was Collins's Point. — Ed. 



of the French ships, and returned to sea. Several 
hundreds of the French died at Chebucto, and large 
numbers were interred on the Dartmouth side, not 
far from the shore. A great quantity of the bones 
have been dug up near the Canal bridge, and on the 
Eastern Passage road, also in other places by work- 
men repairing the highways. D'Anville died, some 
say of poison, and the vice-admiral of the flfeet* 
d'Estournelle, killed himself with his sword.* 

•D'Aiiville'a fleet left Roclielle on 22nd June, 1746, N. S., and 
was soon scattered by storms. The Duke arrived at Chebucto on 
10th September, and on the 16th he died and was buried on 
George's Island. Fever had broken out among the men while at 
sea, and from 1200 to 1300 were buried during the voyage. After 
the remains of the fleet reached Cliebucto, it was found necessary 
to encamp the men, which was accordingly done. Various 
traditions are related as to the site of this encampment. In my 
m:nd there seems to be no doubt that the main one was on the 
western or south-western side of Bedford Basin, at what is still 
known as French Landing— between the Three- and Four- Mile 
Houses. Behind Birch Cove there is an old burying-ground, with- 
out headstones of any kind, and about whiih no one apparently haa 
any credible information. Some consider it to be a Micmac ceme- 
tery, but I have opened a few of the graves, and found a small tuft 
of dark brown hair on one of the skulls, which proves that it was 
n^t that of an Indian. Halibui ton in Thp, Clockmaker (Third Series, 
Ciiaptcr II) speaks of this as the burial placd of d'Anville's men, 
and he says that at that time the hulls of some of the French 
ships could be seen beneath the water near by. If the bones found 
at Dartmouth near the Canal Bridge and on the Eastern Passage 
Koad, were those of d'Anville's men, they must have been buried 
there previous to the formation of the regular encampment on the 
shores of Bedford Basin. I have been told that one of the skulls 


In the month of Aufjust, 1750, the Alderney, a 
ship of 504 tons, arrived at Halifax, with three hun- 
dred and fifty-three emigrants. It was thought 
advisable by the authorities to whom the interests of 
the new settlement were entrusted, that these later 
settlers should occupy the eastern shore of the 
harbour. A town was accordingly laid out 

It was given the name 

in the autumn of 1750. 

foand at Dartmouth had gold-filling in the teeth. There is no 
positive evidence for stating that these were men of the French 
fleet. Mr. Heorge Shields, an aged inhabitant, says that about 
sixty years ago there was a small island, which has since dis- 
appeared from the action of the sea, north of Mott's wharf in 
Dartmouth Cove. This was an old burying ground, and contained 
many human br , which, he says, were those of Frenchmen. The 
island, hov oes not appear on the early p'ans of the place. 

(See a subia^ ,uent note. ) I do not know what warrant there is for the 
statement that the English came into the harbour, but failed to find 
the enemy. It is copied from a paragraph in " Sketches of Dart- 
mouth," by M. B. DcsBrisay, in the Provincial Magazine, vol. I, 
page 95. According to Murdoch and Haliburton, 11.30 Frenchmen 
perished at CheSucto, of the frightful disease which afflicted tliem. 
The Micmacs to this day remember the sickness which they caught 
from the foreigners at that time, and which destroyed, it is said, 
more than a third of the tribe. Although the main incidents of 
this ill-fated expedition are well known, yet the minor particulars 
are meagre, or else very discrepant. Even the place or places 
where the fever stricken men were landed and over a thousand of 
them were burie<l, is still not definitely known. Tlie matter 
much needs elucidation ; and the writer who treats thoroughly 
of the expedition in all its details, will be doing a work of 
much interest, for we cannot but be concerned by the tragic fate of 
this terrible armament which was humbled by storm, sickness, and 



of Dartmouth,* and apportioned as the home of 
the newly arrived settlers. 

From their earliest occupancy of the place, they 
had much to contend with, owing to the incursions 
of the Indians. The latter, under cover of the 
"woods, were constantly lying in wait for the settlers, 
surprising and overpowering them, and leaving very 
few of the unfortunate people to the enjoyment 
of their new home. 

There was a and small military post 
at Dartmouth from the earliest settlement of the 
town. These were stationed on a hill commanding a 
good view of the harbour, and within easy distance 
of the water. It is still known as Block-House 
Hill, although all traces of its former use have long 
ago passed away.-f* 

•The town was doubtless named in honour of William Lcgge, 
Ist Eurl of Dartmouth. This nobleman enjoyed the confidence of 
Queen Anne, and in 1710 became one of her principal Secretaries 
of State. In September of the following year, he was made 
Viscount Lewisham and Earl of Dartmouth, and in 1713 was 
appointed lord-privy-seal. On the death of the queen, he was one 
of the lords-justices of Great Britain. His lordship married in 
1700, Anne, dauglitt- r of Heneage, Earl of Ay?esford. He died on 
16th December, 1750, and was succeeded by his grandson. — Ed. 

t Block-House Hill is at the north-western end of King Street. 
The block-house, of which no portion now remains, is said to have 
been situated on the highest part of the ground which is at pre- 
sent bounded by Prince Edward, Church, Wentworth, and North 


In tho sprin«T of 1751, nine hundred and fifty 
Germans arrived as settlers in Nova Scotia ; and in 
the following year, one thousand more of the same 
nationality. Some difficulty appears to have been 
experienced by the government in providing a suit- 
able situation for settling so large a number of 
persons. It was proposed in council to place them 
on the Dartmouth side of the harbour, over against 
George's Island, and Captain Charles Morris was 
sent to survey the ground. This arrangement was 
not carried into cfiect, and the greater part of the 
German settlers were sent in 1753 to Malagash Bay, 
where they built the town of Lunenburg. 

Streets. King Street very likely passes over or near the site. 
Strange to say, I have been unable to find the building on any of 
the old plans, either military or civil. The following order was 
issued on SlstDeccmber, 1750 : — 

WiiERKAS, it has been represented to His Ex'y, that several 
persons who have lots in Dartnio. do reside on this side of the 
water, and whereas a watch is absolutely necessa.y for the safety 
of the place, notice is hereby given to such persons that if they do 
not pay one sinlling for ench guard as it comes to their turn, they 
shall forfeit their lots in Dartmonth, 

Halifax, DecemV. Slat, 1750. 

By bis Excellency's command, 


On 2.3rd February, Mnl, 0. S., Cornwallis ordered that a sergeant 
and ten or twelve men of the niilitary of Dartmouth, should mount 
guard at night, in tho block-house, and that they should be visited 
from time to time by the lieutenant. — Ed, 



In 1751 • while the little village of Dartmouth 
was sleeping in fancied security, the Indians, under 
cover of the night, surprised the inhabitants, scalped 
a number of the settlers and carried off several of 
them as prisoners. As was natural, these original 
possessors of the country resented fiercely the 
encroachments of the white strangers. They had 
therefore collected in great force on the Basin of 
Minas, and ascended the Shnbenacadie in canoes. 

* I have been unable to ascertain the exact date of this attack. 
It must, however, have been in May. for it was on May 14th, O. S. 
(25th, N. S.) 1751, that a court-martial was ordered to enquire 
into the afifair. The rascally priest, Le Loutre, was probably the 
instigator of this descent upon Dartmouth. He evidently knew 
well the water highway across the province, for it is said that he 
was in the habit of proceeding by the River Shubenacadie to 
Chebucto, where he communicated with Dun d'Anville's fleet in 
1746. (See Sthctions from the Public Documents of N. S., p. 178.) 
Cornwallis himself, in a letter to the Lords of Trade, dated 24th 
June, 1751, seemed to think the Governor of Canada was respon- 
sible for the outrage, and even suspected him of offering a reward 
for English scalps and prisoners. The capture of some vessels by 
the British had much exasperated the French governor, who " sent 
a body of Canada Indians to join the St. John's and Mickmacks, 
and to do what mischief they could in this Province." Those 
interested in the matter, should read Cornwallis's letter, which 
h 18 just been referred to. It will be found in volume 35 of the MS. 
Records of the Province. An article in the Nova Scotia Gazette 
and Weekly Chronicle for 5th September, 1780, blames the French 
for the raid, and even gives the name of the Acadian who, it says, 
wtkS at the head of the expedition. It seems that none of our 
historians have discovered this piece, and I shall therefore copy 
the following : — " As the extracts from the Abbrf Reynal's History 
of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans, Sec, publish 'd in 



in canoes. 

Nothing was easier than to steal into the straggling 
town by night, and to make their escape in case of 
unlooked-for resistance. The Indians had been 
regarded by sad experience as most unfriendly neigh- 
bours to all the newly arrived settlers, and the 
people of Dartmouth, fearing an attack from them, 
had fenced in their town with a low brush palisade. 
This at first had appeared to be a protection, but 
was found afterwards to serve only as a cover for 
the enemy. Captain Clapham and his company of 

the Paper, of last Tuesdaj', contains [sic] several injurious Misre- 
presentations of the Conduct of the English Government in this 
Province, in respect to the French Accadians [sic], coninionly catlM 
Neutral French, and tluir Removal from this Country, it is 
thought necessary to State the real Facts as they happen'd, and 

can be sufficiently attested In 1749 the English made a 

settlement at Halifax, they had scarcely Time to erect Houses for 
their covering, when the Acadians iustigatel the Indians against 
us, supplied them with provision and ammunition, and secured 
their Kctreat, by which means many murdt^rs were committed ; 
and when we attempted to settle Dartmouth, the Acadians them- 
selves with a few Indians, one Beau Soliel an Acadian at their 
Head, fell on that Town in the Night, murderccl above Twenty 
Persons in Cold Blood, and captured as many more ; it would be 
endless to enumerate Particulars, and a Subject too Shocking ; 
but this practise continued for four or five Years, and all our 
Settlers for that Time were obliged to live within Paliisadcd 
Places, guarded by the King's Troops, an<l the troops themselves 
were often attacked by Acadians in travelling from Fort to Fort." 
Tht Xova-Scotia Afayazhie, vohmie II., (Halifax, 1700, pp. 287-'2S9) 
contains a similar article, doubtless by the same writer, in which 
the name of the Acadian appears as " Beau Soleli." The differ- 
ence is merely a typographical error. In this last account, the 
presence of other .Acadians is not mentioned. — £"1/. 

il II 



Rangers were stationed in the Block-House, firing 
through the loop-holes during the whole affair. The 
light of the torches, and the discharge of musketry, 
alarmed the inhabitants of Halifax, some of whom 
put off to the assistance of the village. They did 
not, however, arrive in any force until after the 
Indians had retired. The night was calm, and the 
cries of the people and the whoops of the savages 
were distinctly heard on the western side of the 
harbour. On the following morning, se/eral bodies 
were brought over to Halifax. The Indians had 
carried off the scalps. Mr. Pyke,* some of whose 
descendants are still living in Nova Scotia, lost his 
life on this occasion. Tliose who fled to the woods 
were all taken prisoners but one.-f 

A Mr. Wisdom, who was engaged on the 
Dartmouth side cutting lumber and procuring 

* Father of John George Pyke. — Ed. 

t Tradition aaya that the aunt of Mr. Teaser was an infant at 
the time of this massacre, and that she was one of the babes who 
were carried down to an open boat and rowed across the harbour, 
under fire of tlie Indians. Rev. Thomas Teaser was well known, 
being formerly rector of Truro. Capt. W. Moorsom, in his Letters 
from Nova Scotia (Load., 1830, page 29) says, that one of tho 
survivors of tliis nit'.'sacre was living in 1828, an old respected 
inhabitant of the town. He was a child at the time of the attack, 
and when the Indians rushed into his father's cottage and toma- 
hawked his parents, he escaped by hiding himself beneath the 
bed.— AW. 

I \ 

> I 



)use, firing 
ffiiir. The 

3 of whom 

They did 
1 after the 
n, and the 
ho savages 
iide of the 
eral bodies 
ndians had 
} of whose 
in, lost his 

the woods 

I on the 

house frames, was crossing to Halifax before day- 
break to get provisions for his camp. Hearing the 
tiring, he returned to its shelter at the place generally 
known as Croigh ton's Cove.* He and his men, 
armed with muskets, hastened to the place where 
the fight was in progress, leaving a coloured man in 
charge of the camp. When they returned, they 
found that the Indians had visited their quarters and 
carried off everything, including the u. 'fortunate 
black man. He was taken by his captors to Prince 
Edward Island, but was afterwards found and 
brought back by his emphjyer. Mr. VVisdom-j' and 
his family subseciuently settled in Dartmouth, and 
many of his descendants are among the present 
inhabitants of that township. 

A Mr. Hall was captured by the Indians at this 
time, and was .scalped in the neighborhood of what 
is now known as Prince Arthur's Park. In his case 

an infant at 
le babes who 

the harbour, 

well known, 
in hia Letters 
t one of the 
)1(1 respected 
>f the attack, 
e and toma- 

beneath the 

* I have been told that Wisdom's camp was just south of 
Mott's factories in Dartmouth Cove. The place once belonged to 
the Creightons, and it was the terminus of the south ferry. A 
number of fine old willows still stand there. They are said to 
have been planted to replace the forest trees v^hich had been cut 
down. — Eil. 

t This may have been John Wisdom, who with Edward Kin^, 
received a grunt of land on 26th January, 1786, which included the 
present Woodlawn Cemetery to the south-west of Laniont's Lake, 
and also another tract at Lake Loon.— AV. 


i ! 






the operation fortunately wjih not fatal, for he 
recovenul and afterwards went back to England. 

Touchinff this nuiHsacre in Dartmouth, a writer 
in tlje Lowhtn Mdtjazine of 1751, says, that on 
the 14th-25th of May,* 1751, a general court- 
martial was onlered to encjuire into the conduct of 
the different coninumdinfj officers, both commissioned 
and non-commissione<l, who had suffered the village of 
Dartmouth to be plundered, an«l many of its inhabi- 
tants ])ut to death, when there was a detachment 
of regulars and irregulars posted there for their 
protection, to the amount of upwards of sixty men. 
Governor Cornwallis in a letter to the Lords of 
Trade, dated 24th June, 1751, says : " A large party 
of Indians came down to a small village opposite 
Halifax where I was obliged to put some settlers 
that arrived last year, in the night attacked it and 
did some mischief by killing of the inhabitants, I 
think four, and took six soldiers who were not 
upon guard that night. Our people killed six of 
the Indians, and had they done their duty well, 
must have killed many more." 

Private letters from Halifax state that there had 
been skirmishes with the Indians, in which several 
of the English had been killed and scalped. " Some 
days ago," says the writer of one of these letters. 

The two dates are new and old »tyle.— Ed. 



" al>out Hixty IndiiuiH attacked the town of Dart- 
mouth, whoso fence is only a small brushwiXKl, and 
killed altout ei;^ht of the inhahitant^*, an<] after 
that exercised their cruelties by pulling down somo 
houses ami destroying all they found, not sparing 
women and children. A sergeant who was in his 
Ited, went to the assistance of the inhabitants. 
They pursued and killed him, and not being con- 
tented with his life, cut his left arm off and after- 
wards scalped hinj. In returning from the town, 
they carried off al)Out fourteen prisoners in triumph. 
The company of Rangers posted there gave no 
assistance. But one Indian scalp had been brought 
in under the offer of fifty pounds reward made 
some four months before. This is attributed to the 
care of the Indians for their dead, as they always 
carry their fallen comrades with them when retiring 
from a scene of slaughter."* Another letter from 
Halifax, dated 30th June, 1751, says, that " a few 
days since the Indians in the French interest per- 
petrated a most horrible ma.ssacrc in Dartmouth, 
where they killed, scalped and frightfully mangled 
several of the soldiery and inhabitants. They 
spared not even women and children. A little baby 
was found lying by its father and mv;ther, all three 
scalped. The whole town was a scene of butchery, 

* See Lovdon Alayazitu, 1751, page 341. 



some having their hanrls cut off, some their bellies 
rippeJ open, and others with their brains dashed 

By these extracts it will be seen tliat the 
accounts of the massicre vary considerably. The 
traditions handed down by the survivors and still 
extant in Dartmouth, would imply that a lar^e 
number lost their lives on this occasion. At all 
events, the alarm and discouragement caused by the 
attack, depopulated the little village, and the greater 
part of the settlers removed to other places.-f 

Some Germans, who arrived on lOtli July, 
1751, were sent to Dartuionth and employed in 
picketing the back of the town. It is said that 
this fence remained until 1754, and that a detach- 
ment of troops protected the place.* ^<>t above 
five families, however, were left in it, as there was 

* London Magazine, 1751, page 419. 

+ A list of the families in part of Xova Scotia, dated Halifax, 
Julj', 17^2, states that tliere were within the town of Dartmouth, 
5.1 families, 81 males above sixteen, 47 females above IG, 29 
males under 16, 38 females under 16 ; total 193. (Sclectionn from 
(he Public Dccumrntx of X. S., p. 670.)— £"(/. 

ij: Fort Clareijce was built in 1754 (see a subsequent page of 
this History). The following extracts are from the diary of John 
Thomas, a surgeon in Winslow's expedition of 17").'), against the 
Acadians (See Oollfctions of N. S. HiMorkal Socie.fy, vol. 1): — 

December 10, 1755. —Went to Dartmouth P: M: with Colonol 

Winslow & major Prible Ensign (iay is Posted thare with 50 men. 

December 12. — \V« Paraded 150 men who Took Beding & 



neither trade nor fishery to maintain them, and they 
were afraid to cultivate the land outside of the 
pickets, lest the dreaded Micniacs should destroy 
not only the work of their hands, but also them- 
selves at the same time.* 

In February, 1752, the first ferry between the 
new settlement and Halifax was established, and a 
ferryman, John Connor, appointed by order of the 
Governor and Council."!' 

In 1758, a return was made by the Surveyor- 
General, the first Charles Morris, to Governor 
Lawrence, giving a list of the lots in the town of 
Dartmouth, and the names of the pi'oprietors who 
had complied with the Governor's request regai'ding 

went over to Dartmotli under ye Comand of Capt. Speakman to 
Take up winter Quarters tliare. 

December 2(j — Colonel VVinslow came over to Dartmoth to 
Revew ye men I'osted tliare I came over to Dartmoth with him. 

December 28. — Mr. Philips Preached In Clapums windmill 
P: M: he Returned to Hallefax V: M: 

December 31. — We have about 230 of our Troops here att 
Dartmoth this ends ye year 1755. 

* This was in 1753. {Vide Murdoch's Hiatory of N. S., v. II, 
p. 224.)— AU 

t Dr. Akins, in his Essay on the Hittory of the Settlfmnit 
of Halifax, (llfi[iia,x, 1847, page 18), is mistaken when he states 
that this occurred in December, 1750. Mrs. Lawson failed to 
rectify the error. The ferry was established by the 
Governor and Council on Monday, 3rd February, 1752. John 
Connor, of Dartmouth, was given the exclusive right for three 
years, of carrying passengers for hire between the two towns. He 
was directed to constantly keep two boats for the purpose. These 




: I 

! I 

settlement and improvement.* The number was 
small, and from this period the township was almost 
derelict-t The Indians still collected in force in the 
vicinity of Shubenacadie, and were always sending 
out scouts in search of plunder. The unhappy 
inhabitants, in constant dread of an attack, passed 
a miserable existence, and were anxious to escape 
from a place where there was neither assurance of 
safetj'^ nor promise of prosperity'. 

two boats, or more, were to continually ply between the towns 
during proper weather, from sunrise till sunset every day in tlie 
week except Sundaj-, when they were to pass only twice, in order 
to accotnujcdate persons attending divine service. The fare for 
each passenger was to be three-pence between sunrise and sunset, 
and sixpence at any other hour. Baggage carried in the hand 
passed free, and a reasonable amrunt was to be paid for other 
baggage or goods. Previous to this, the inhabitants of Dartmouth 
and Halifax had been much inconvenienced by the charges and 
irregularity of the unauthorized boats which liad plied between the 
settlements. Vide MS. Minutes of Council held Feb. 3, 175'?, 
preserved in the Provincial Secretary's office, Halifax ; also Akins 
Selections from the Public Documents of zV. S., p. 648. For a full 
account of the ferry, see Chapter III. — Ed. 

"The list which accompanied this return, is probably the one 
which will be found in Book I, pages 60-66, of tiie old description 
books then kept by the 8ur%-eyor-general, now in the Crown Lands 
Office. On pages '2S0-285 of the same volume, will be found a list 
of the proprietors of lots in the new town of Dartmouth as 'aid out 
for the Quakers, together with grants made to Michael Wallace, 
J. Trcmaine, and Lawrence Hartshorne, in 1796, after the depar- 
ture of those people. — Ed. 

+ " The Town of Dartmouth, situated on the Opposite side of 
tlie Harbour, has at present two Families residing there who 
subsist by cutting Wood." (From A Description of the Several 



For nearly thirty years, only these few strng- 
gling families held the unfortunate town. The 
government «lid nothing to induce later arrivals of 
emigrants to settle among them, nor took any 
measures to assist the discouraged occupants in the 
improvement of the village. 

In 1 784, Governor Parr opened negotiations with 
persons residing in Nantucket, and encouraged 
twenty families, to remove thence to Dartmouth, 
so that they might caiuy on the whale fishery from 
its harboui'.* Tn 178G, the Surveyor-in-chief was 
ordered to make a return of the vacant lands in 
Dartmouth, so as to grant them to Samuel Starbuck, 
Timothy Folger and the rest of the company from 

Tou-tiH in the Prorivce of Xova Scotia, with the Lands comprehended 
in it hordf.rinfj vjion said Townsi, drawn rip . . . Jan'y. 9, 176S, 
By Charlfn Morriit, Esq., Chief Surveyor. Manuscript no. 172, in 
Legialntive Library, Halifax,)—^'/. 

* On 20th September, 1785, Governor Parr wrote to the 
Secretary of State, Lord Sydney, that, in consequence of the 
enconrai;tnant which he had given them, there had latily arrived in 
this poit three brigantines and one schooner, with their crews and 
everything necessaty for the whale fishery. He expected, very 
soon, their families would come here, as well as the value of their 
property at Nantucket converted into such commodities as should 
be most convenient for transportation ; also he looked for the 
arrival of a ship [sloop?] and tliree niore brigantines thence, for the 
same employment. (Murdoch's Hixtory of N. S., Vol. III., p. 44.) 
Lord Sydney replied, April, 178fi, that he disapproved of the intro- 
duction of these people into tlie province. — Ed. 







Nantucket.* The town was then laid out in a new 
form, and the sum of fifteen hundred and forty-one 
pounds, seventeen shillings and sixpence was paid 
in 1787 for buildings to accommodate the whalers 
and their families, and for otherwise improving the 
settlement *f* 

The town now took a new start, and good hope 
was entertained for its ultimate prosperity. The 
fishermen principall}'^ confined theii- efibrts to the 
neighbouring Gulf of the St. Lawrence, where at 
that time black whales were found in abundance. 
Sperm whales were also obtained in the waters 
further south. An establishment was opened almost 
immediately after the whalers were well started, 
for the manufacture of spermaceti. This was a 
remunerative industry, ami continued to floui"ish 
for several years. 

These settlers from Nantucket were members 
of the Society of Friends, usually called Quakers. 

* Murdoch in hia History of Nova Scotia, vol. Ill, page 44, 
says that 1785 was the date of this order. The town lots were 
escheated on 2nd March, 1786, in order to grant them to the 
Quakers. — Ed. 

t By Letters Parent bearing date 4th September, 1788, a 
common of one hundred and fifty acres, was granted to Tliomas 
Cochran, Timothy Folger and Samuel Starbuck in trust for th^ in- 
habitants of the town of Dartmontli (( Jrant Book 19, page 58, Crown 
Lands Ofiice). In 1789 an act was passed ti> enable the inhabitants 
to occupy the common in tuch a manner as seemed most beneficial to 
them, and in 1797 (chapter 2) another w as passed to autliorize the 



lid out in a new 
(1 and forty-one 
pence was paid 
ate the whalers 
e improving the 

, and good hope 
rosperity. The 
r efforts to the 
rence, where at 
I in abundance, 
in the waters 
s opened ahnost 
re well started, 
This was a 
ued to flourish 

were members 
called Quakers. 

vol. Ill, page 44, 
The town lots were 
giiint them to the 

jeptembcr, 1788, a 
granted to Tliomas 
in trust for thrt in- 
19, page 58, Crown 
blile the inhabitants 
ed most; beneficial to 
eil to autliorize the 

They were a peaceable, orderly, God-fearing people. 
Frugal and industrious, they left their mark upon 
the rising village, from which by unfortunate cir- 
cumstances, they Were soon obliged to remove. The 
failure of a large house in Halifax, engaged in the 
whale fishery, brought about other business suspen- 
sions and caused serious loss to the managers of the 
Dartmouth branch of that enterprise. The estab- 
lishment received a severe shock which it was never 
able to surmount. In a short time all work ceased, 
and the whole undertaking was irretrievably ruined. 
At this crisis in the aflfairs of the disheartened 
whalers, an agent was employed by the merchants 
of Milford, Great Britain, whose mission it was to 
induce these people to remove from Dartmouth 
and continue their occupation under the auspices of 
the English company. The offer was too liberal 
and opportune to be rejected. In 1792, a large 

Governor to appoint trustees for the plot, on tho death or removal 
of the trustees holding the same. This last act was in consequence 
of tlie departure of Folger and Starbuck from the province. 
Michael Wallace, Lawrence Hartshorne, and Jonathan Tremaine, 
Esqrs., were therefore made trustees on l.Sth April, 1798, in place 
of those named in the grant. An act for recrulating the common 
was passed in 1841 (chapter 52), and in 1808 and 1872 other acts 
were passed to amend those already in existence. In 1888 the 
town council decided to appoint a commission which was to take 
charge of the common, and under its care the land has been very 
much improved. — £■(/. 




II Hut 


number accepted the overture, and the province 
lost thereby the greater part of this orderly and 
industrious people. Many of the houses built and 
occupied by the Quaker settlers are still standing. 
For several j'ears one of the public schools was 
held in the building used by them as a meeting- 
house, but it has since been taken down and a new 
school-house erected on the site.* Some of the old 
houses, until very late years, were used by tlieir 
descendants as dwellings. Many persons of Quaker 
descent are still inhabitants of the town, preserving 
the good qualities of their progenitors in industry 
and uprightness of life. 

One family, that of Seth Coleman, deserves 
special mention. He came to Dartmouth with the 
original " twenty," and remained there after the 
exodus of his brethren f Murdoch, in his History 
of Nova Scotia, [vol. Ill, p. 300,] mentions him in 
this paragraph : " Sir John Wentworth [in 1814] 
induced Mr. Seth Coleman to vaccinate all the poor 
persons in Dartmouth, and throughout the township 
of Preston adjoining. He treated over four-hundred 

• The Quaker meeting-house lots were numbers 1 and 2, i^* 
block I. Tlie building stood at the northern corner of King and 
Quarrel Streets, where the Central School- house is now situated. 

t Seth Coleman afterwards removed from Dartmouth, and 
died at Nantucket, 20th March, 1822, aged 78 years. -£i/. 



cases with great success. Mr. Coleman was one of 
the ' Friends,' commonly called Quakers, who came 
here to set up the whale fishery, and was one of a 
very few of their number who remained in the 
province. He was a model of piety, industry, and 
general philanthropy." One of the best known 
representatives of this family passed away on 23rd 
December, 1886, in the seventy-third year of his 
age, — William Coleman, for many years the careful 
and genial captain of one of the Dartmouth fei-ry 
steamers. He was a landmark between the past 
and present generations, and with him we have lost 
many historical associations and traditions deeply 
interesting to his towns-people. 





i 'I'll!' 

AT a very early period, the importance of obtain- 
ing easy access to that part of the province 

lying on the shore of the Basin of Minas, 
by making a canal between the Dartmouth and 

Shubenacadie Lakes and Rivers, attracted general 
attention.* Lake Charles, near the first Shubena- 
cadie lake, is three and a half miles from Halifax. 
From the southern end of this lake there is a descent 
through the Dartmouth Lakes to the harbour of 
Halifax, of ninety-one feet ; and from its northern 
extremity, a gradual descent through several beau- 
tiful lakes into the great Shubenacadie, thence in 
the channel of the river for a distance of about 
thirty miles, to the junction with the waters of the 
Bay of Fundy. The lakes on this chain are the 

* Sir John Wentworth in a letter to Colonel Small, dated 
27th May, 1794, says : "Your teiritory at Kennetcook will be 
much improved by my plan of rendering the Shubenacadie navig- 
able, and a communication thence to Dartmouth by a chain of 
lakes. This great work I hope to get completed, if we are not 
interrupted by hostilities." — Ed. 



ice of obtain- 

the province 

in of Minas, 

rtmouth and 

icted general 

rst Shubena- 

Tom Halifax. 

e is a descent 

harbour of 

its northern 

leveral beau- 

e, thence in 

ce of about 

raters of the 

ain are the 

[ Small, dated 

letcook will be 

enacadie navig- 

by a chain of 

if we are not 

First and Second Dartmouth Lakes, Lake Charles 
Lake William, Lake Thomas, Fletcher's Lake, and 
Grand Lake. 

In the year 1797, the matter of the canal was 
brought before the legislature.* The House appro- 
priated the sum of two hundred and fifty pounds, 
and appointed a committee to institute enquiry into 
everything connected with the construction of a 
canal from Dartmouth Cove across the province to 
ihe mouth of the Shubenacadie River, where it falls 
into the Basin of Mina.»*. This committee employed 
Mr. Isaac Hildreth, a civil engineer, who made a 
survey and reported to the commissioners. The 
report was dated 15th November, 1797. He esti- 
mated that the cost of a four-foot navigation would 
be £3,202 I7s. 6d. 

Theophilus Chamberlain, a surveyor who will be 
spoken of in the Histoiy of Preston, was associated 
with Mr. Hildreth in this work. 

In the .session of 1798, a bill was brought before 
the legislature, for incorporating a company to 
complete the canal. A petition praying for legis- 
lative assistance had previously been introduced and 
signed by William For.syth, Andrew Belcher, and 
Richard Kidston. The governor of the province. 

* See Journals of th-i Howe of Assembly, N. S., for 7th June, 
1197. -Ell. 


■ .»*- 




Sir John Wentworth, being very friondly to the 
undertaking, addressed a letter date<l 16th July, 
1798, to the gentlemen who proposed to form the 
company for constructing the canal. He stated that 
the House of Assembly had addressed him, request- 
ing that a patent might be issued toward carrying 
into effect the purposes intended in the said petition, 
and that he would give the necessary orders to 
expedite that patent for the advice and consent of 
His Majesty's Council, and that he should name in 
the patent eight directors, and one secretary and ' 
cashier, namely: — William Forsyth, chairman; 
Andrew Belcher, deputy chairman; William Coch- 
ran, Lawrence Hartshorne, Charles Hill, Richard 
Kidston, John Bremner and William Sabatier, 
directors; Michael Wallace, secretary and cashier. 

He goes on to say, that he is persuaded that the 
greatest benefit will be derived from the execution 
of the plan, " to the revenue and morals of the 
country, by making it the interest and convenience 
of numerous and increasing inhabitants to purchase 
of the fair trader in or through Halifax ; whence 
the frauds, lying, violences, and prejudices attendant 
on illicit commerce will naturally vanish." 

Notwithstanding all this, the bill did not pass. 
The subject of a canal was therefore in abeyance 
until 1814. About this time, the opinion was 

i iil^i 

iHi I 



L'tidly to the 
I 16th July, 
to form the 
f e stated that 
him, request- 
nxvd carrying 
said petition, 
ry orders to 
id consent of 
ould name in 
iecretary and 
I, chairman ; 
^'illiam Coch- 
lill, Richard 
am Saba tier, 
nd cashier, 
ided that the 
the execution 
torals of the 
I convenience 
! to purchase 
Pax ; whence 
ces attendant 

:lid not pass. 

in abeyance 

opinion was 

held by certain promoters of the scheme, that 
communication could he made between Lake William 
and the Harbour via Bedford Basin.* A competent 
enpfineer, however, who was authorized to examine 
this line, disapproved of the proposal and gave his 
adherence to the original route. Further sums of 
money were then voted at the solicitation of Mr. 
Sabutier, and expended under his direction by Mr. 
Valentine Gill, a civil engineer. No report was 
made by this gentleman, but his survey served to 
confirm the correctness of that made by Hildreth 
and Chamberlain. 

The expense incurred in the survey made bj' 
the latter gentlemen in 1797, was £208 13s. Id. Mr. 
Gill stipulated for two guineas and his expenses per 
day. He only required the assistance of two persons 
for his work, and he considered the winter season 
the best time for such a survey. On 27th April, 
1815, he was paid for his plans the sum of one 
hundred and ninety pounds. About this time, a 
small amount of money voted by the Assembly was 
expended by Mr. Gill in removing obstructions from 
the river near Fletcher's Bridge, and rendering that 
point accessible during spring and autumn for large 
boats from the bay shore. 

* During the session of 1814, floO was voted for a survey of 
the Shuhenacadie River and Lakes from the head of the tide to 
Uedford Basin.— £'(/. 




On opening the Kession of 1820, Lord Dalhousie, 
who was then pfovernor, deemed the matter worthy 
of being included among tlie suggestions for the 
improvement of the province. He said it promised 
great public advantages, and he suggested the 
employment of competent engineers to ascertain the 
extent of its difficulties. The House replied that it 
would carefully consider the interesting subject. 
Two hundrc'<l pounds were accordingly voted for a 
more particular survey, but this sum being found to 
be inadequate, further proceedings were delaye<l 
until 1824, when an additional sum of three hundred 
pounds* was appropriated to secure the services of 
a gentleman of competent ability for the execution 
of the important task. 

In order to encourage and facilitate the formation 
of an association to construct the canal, an act to 
authorise the incorporation of such a company was 
passed by the Assembly in 1824. At the close of 
the session, His Excellency Sir James Kempt said, 
" the internal communications of a country tend so 
manifestly to its improvement and to increase the 
productive industry of its population, that I shall 
lose no time in employing the means which you have 
placed at my disposal, to ascertain the practicability 

• Murdoch {Hintory of X. S., vol. III. p. 514) says that £500 
was voted for a survey of the canal, on 10th February, 1824.— Ed. 



and cxponse of forming a canal to unito the waters 
of tlu? Basin of Minas with the Harbour of Halifax." 

Accordingly in the same ytsar, Thomas Tolford, 
a celebrated engineer residing in London, aiul 
William Chapman of Newcastle, were consulted, and 
Francis Hall, one of Mr, Telford's pupils, then residing 
in Canada, was employed to conduct this important 
survey. In June, ltS25, Mr Hall conunenced work. 
His plan and report dated 17th June, 182.'), places 
the cost of forming a passage with ff)ur feet and a 
half depth of water, at £44,136 ISs 5d. ; and with 
eight feet depth, at £53,844 7s. 5d. 

Mr. Hall was so well satisHed with the correctness 
of his plans and estimates, tliat he oflered to enter 
into a contract to complete the work, and to place 
five thou.sand pounds in the hands of the commis- 
sioners as wecurity for the due performance of his 
contract. On Oth July, 1825, a special meeting of 
the Chamber of Commerce, Halifax, was held to 
consider Mr. Hall's plans and I'eports. It was 
resolved, that the chaniber recommend that work 
suitable for an eight-feet navigation, as by far the 
most useful depth, should be completed, as indispen- 
sable to the future prosperity of Halifax ; and that 

Mr. Boggs, Mr. Collins and Mr. Hartshorne, be a 
connnitteo to communicate with his Honour the 
President of His Majesty's Council, with regard to 



the most effectual measures to be adopted for pro- 
moting this highly important object ; and that the 
representatives of the town be requested to assist 

The Shubenacadie Canal Company was incor- 
porated by letters patent dated 1st June, 1826. Its 
capital was sixty-thousand pounds currency, divided 
into twenty-four hundred shares of twenty-five 
pounds or one hundred dollars each. Seven hundred 
and twenty shares, or eighteen thousand pounds, 
were subscribed in Halifax. The grant from the 
legislature was fifteen thousand pounds. The Hon. 
Michael Wallace was appointed president, and the 
Hon. Thomas Nicholson Jefi'ery, and Samuel Cunard, 
Esq., vice-presidents ; Joseph Allison, Thomas Bogf^s, 
James Tobin, Lewis Edward Piers, Stephen Wastie 
DeBlois, John Clarke, John Alexander Barry, William 
Pryor and John Starr, Escjrs., directors ; and Charles 
Rufus Fairbanks, Esq., secretary. All of the above 
were named in the letters patent. 

On 9th March, the shareholder'^ met for the firet 
time, and Francis Hall, Esq., was appointed the 
company's engineer, at a salary of eight-hundred 

•On 18th February, 1826, a public meeting was held in the 
Exchange Coffee-house, Halifax, to discuss matters relating to the 
canul. Money was subscribed and other work done. (See 
Murdoch's HUtory of N. S., vol. Ill, p. 546.)— £"(/. 



opted for pro- 

and that the 

ested to assist 

ly was incor- 
me, 1826. Its 
iTency, divided 
if twenty-five 
iseven hundred 
usand pounds, 
rant from the 
ds. The Hon. 
dent, and the 
imuel Cunard, 
^hoinas Bosr^'s. 
.eplien Wastie 
krry, William 
; and Charles 
of the above 

; for the fii-st 
ppointed the 

was held in the 
s relating to the 
•rk done. (See 

pounds per annum. On Tuesday, the 25th of July, 
1826, the ceremony of connnoncing the canal took 
place. Sir James Kempt, the governor of the 
province, attended by a large escort of the military 
and naval force, with artillery and rifle band.s, also 
the officers of the Grand Lodge, the Royal Albion, 
and the Lodges Nos. 4, 8, 188 and 2G5 of Free and 
Accepted Masons, turned out, together with a large 
number of spectators, to do honour to the occasion. 
They proceeded to Port Wallace, three miles from 
Dartmouth, at the pass between the Second Dart- 
mouth Lake and Lake Charles ; and there ground 
was fiist broken,* 

The funds of the companj' were increased by 
the .sale of stocks in England to the amount of 
twenty-seven hundred pounds sterling, and al.>^o by a 
loan of twenty thousand pounds sterling by the 
Lords Commissioners of the Treasury.-f The total 
expenditure of the company up to December, 1885 
was in currency eighty-seven thousand eight hun- 
dred and thirty pounds. 

* This ceremony was pei formed by the Earl of Dalhousie, who 
was then visiting Halifax. Subsequently his Lordship and many 
of the company partook of a collation in Dartiroutli, at the house 
of L. Hartshoine, Ksq. A full aceouut will be found in the Xoia 
Scotiuii for 27th July, 18-26.- Ed. 

t In consideration of this loan, the Lords Commissioners of the 
Tieasury received a mortgage of the canal. See indenuirc made 
in May, 1831.— AV. 

li ii 

i! ' 



if ;' ■ 
li :i 





il ! 

Notwithstanding Mr. Hall's abilities and atten- 
tion, and the approval of his designs by Thomas 
Telfoid, the consulting engineer, the works in the 
locks and dams proved very faulty. Every winter 
the frost did great damage. The contractors declared 
their inability to proceed with and complete their 
work. The company itself undertook to make good 
the damages, but with no better result. The dam 
broke at the northern end of Lake Charles, and 
immediately the costly works at Fletcher's Lake and 
at the Grand Lake were destroyed by the great rush 
of water. This disaster proved a death-blow to the 
Shubenacadie Canal Company. 

While the work had been going on, Dartmouth 
had profited materially by the enterprise. From the 
beginning, it had been difficult to procure suitable 
workmen, and a vessel called the Corsair was 
accordingly chartered by Mr. Kidd, who proceeded 
to Scotland and returned in the spring of 1827 with 
about forty stone-cutters and masons with their 
families. These men laboured at the locks for two 
or three years. They were industrious and skilful 
artisans, and infusetl a spirit of emulation in their 
fellow-laboui'ers, which has long borne good fruit in 
Nova Scotia- 
After the unfortunate disaster caused by the 
breaking of the dam at Lake Charles, the works 



1 atten- 
s in the 
Y winter 
i declared 
[ete their 
iake good 
The dam 
arles, and 
Lake and 
great rush 
low to the 

From the 
re suitable 
orsair was 
1827 with 
with their 
;ks for two 
and skilful 
lion in their 
;ood fruit in 

ised by the 
the works 

were inspected by Lieut.-Col. Ricliard Botelcr, R. E., 

in order to make an estimate of the cost of completing 

tlie canal. Col. Boteler was lost at sea on his passage 

to England. By his estimate, prepared by Lieut. 

Henry Poole3^ R. E., the sum of one hundred and 

twenty thousand pounds would be requii'ed. In tlie 

years 1835 and 18oG, a most elaborate survey, with 

plans, estimates and report, was made to the order of 

Charles 11. Fairbanks, Es<j., by George R. Baldwin, 

Es(i., C. E., of Boston. By Ids estimate, the cost of 

the works would be four hundi-ed and eighty-seven 

thousand, three hundred and sevent^'-five pounds. 

The moi-tgage made bj' the company to the 
British government was now foreclosed, and by a 
deed in chancery it was conveyed to the province of 
Nova i^cotia on 11th June, 1851. The pr()j)erties not 
covered l)y the mortgage were sold in the following 
year to satisfy judgment-, and the whole was ])ur- 
chased for the province by the Hon. James McNab 
as trustee. 

In 1853, the Iidand Navigation Company was 
incorporated, having a capital of thirty thou.sand 
pounds. It purchased from the government of Nova 
Scotia the property and works of the late Slmbenac- 
adie Canal Company.* The ojiening of the canal 

* This was by deed, Hon. .iaiiies McXiili to Inliiiid Navii;ulion 
. Co., dated 1 0th June, 1854. Tlie inice jmid was £'2UO0.— AV/. 






i ^ii^^^H 

!!l :'■ ' 



i ; 



was again proceeded with, under the direct super- 
vision of the new company's engineer, Charles William 
Fairbanks, Esq. All their cash, twenty thousand 
pounds, having been expended, the company was 
obliged to borrow money by mortgage of all their 
property. The canal progressed very slowly, but in 
1801 it opened for business throughout. A steam 
vessel of sixty tons, the Avery, named after the 
president of the company. Dr. James F. Aveiy, 
having cleared at the custom house-, Halifax, reported, 
via the canal, at Maitland," and returned again to 
Halifax Harbour. The following oi'der in council 
was passed, regarding this fact : — 


Nova Scotia, j 


By His Excellency the Right 

The Eahl of Mulouave, 
Lieutenant-Governor and Com- 
mander in Chief in and over 
Her Majesty's Province of 
Nova Scotia and its depen- 
dencies, (fee, &c., &c. 

To wIkmu it may concern : — 

It is herel)y certified that sufficient proof hath 
been given, to the satisfaction of the Government of 
tins Province, that the Inland Navigation Company 
have comj)lied with the terms imposed under tiie 
deed which transferred the property to them, by 
completing a water communication between the 
Harbour of Halifax and the Basin of Minus, wliicli 
deed bears date June the tenth, A. D. 1(S54, having 



•li •■■ iii ii 



been executed by the Honble. Junies McNab, Eocciver 
General and Trustee for the Pi-ovince of Nova 
Scotia, of the one part, and the said Coni])any of 
the other pai-t, and is registered at Halifax in Book 
107, pacre :^8<S. 

And fui'ther, I certify thst the said ])roperty, 
lands, lands covoi'ed by water, woiks and appurten- 
ances, and c\o\y part thereof, are free from any 
claim on the part of the Goveiiinient of this 

Given uixler my hand and Seal at Arms 
this nineteenth day of Fel ruary in the 
twenty-fifth year of Hei- Majesty's I'ei^n, 
and in the year of our Lord, one thou- 
sand eiyht hundred and sixty-two. 
By His Excellenc3''s command, 

[ttd.] Jo.sEi'H Howe. 

Registry of Deeds, Halifax, X. S. — I certify that on 
the 8rd day of March, A. 1)., 1802, at \n o'clock, 
a. )n., this instrument was recorded in this oilice, 
in Libi-o 184, Folio 849. 

[Sd.] Gko. C. Whiddkn, 


On the 11th of June, 1S62, the whole ]iroperty 
and woi-ks were sold ly the sheriff. The}- were 
purchased by a company styled, The Lake and 
River Navigation Company.* No boats were pro- 
videtl by this company, but private individuals 
placed on the canal three steam-b(;ats and twelve 

*Ueeil, iktcil IStli .June, ]S(i2, J. J. Sawyer, sluritV of county 
of Halifax, to Samuel (iray anil John Stairs (for the Lake and 
Kiver Navigation Co.). £12,700 was given for tlie pro];erty. -/v/. 










SCOWS, together witli one eiglity-ton barj^e. Conse- 
quently some busine>>s was done. A large quantity 
of timber was delivered at Halifax, also many 
thousand cords of woo<l, with building materials. 
Coal and supplies for the gold mines were trans- 
ported from Halifax. The canal was tiius worked at 
a small profit by the Lake ami River Navigation Com- 
)K\>iy, niitil they sold the property in February, 1870.* 
Lew b Pievs Fairbanks, Es(|., was tlie purchaser. 
It was :i>:;.iin doomed to go to destruction. Gold was 
Jisroverc''. i!; the summit reservoir, and the Mines 
Dejiartmeiit, •• ,; \)ut any regatd to the rights of 
the owner of the canal-lands there, disputed Mr. 
Fairbanks's title, and the effect of the Provincial 
Government deed made by tlie Hon. James McNab, 
trustee for the province, in 1875. One thousand 
dollars damages were awarded to Mr. Fairbanks, 
against the government for trespass. While this 
matter was under consideration, the drawbridge at 
Waverley was removed by the provincial authorities, 
and a fixed bridge erected in its place. This was 
a bar against all passage. The Dominion Railway 
or Public Woi-ks De[)artment removed the bridge at 
Enfield, and replaced it by another bridge, whose 
girders were so low as to prevent the passage of a 

* The deed is dated 1st April, 1870. The smn paid was 
$50,000. -A'./. 





boat on the River Str.tion. The owner, harassed by 
persons opulent and in high places, was obliged to 
realize the fact, that the completion of this inland 
river communication did not fultil in any degree the 
expectations so earnestly expressed by Sir John 
VVentworth in regard to the great improvement to 
the "revenue and morals" of the country. The 
canal now lies in ruins. 

A .summary of the expenditure will conclude this 
notice of the Shubenacadie Canal. As many erron- 
eous statements regarding the cost of the work have 
been made, the figures given below may be relied 
upon as being correct. 

Grant from the Province £15,000—0—0 

Shares paid up and sold in Halifax . . 16,398 — 5 — 4 
Shares paid up and sold in England . . 30,000—0 — 
Loan, on mortgage, by British Govt. . , 22,222 — 4 — 5 

Halifax currency £83,020—9-9 

The Inland Navigation Company, ex- 
pended £42,130—14—3 

The stock in this Company, paid up. 18,400 — — 
The Grant from the Legislature .... 5,000 — — 

The legislature also remitted to the companj'^ the 
sum of £2000, the amount of the purchase money 
paid to the government in 1854. 






U'i' li. 

Hi! I 



The town ot' Dtirtmouth was not a little bene- 
fitted by the large expenditure for land purchased 
and the extensive works erected there : 

The Shubenacadie Canal Company 

expended on these works . . . ..£51,227 — 12 — 11| 
And for the improvement of public 

roads 567— 8— 5| 

And for the purchase of land S,()iS,S — S — G 

Total.. £59,878— 9—11 

The Inland Navigation Company also 
expended in Dartmouth, or in its 
immediate vicinity £.^0,000— 0—0 

Or a grand total of $:359,951.0S, or . .£89,878— 9— 11 

That the expenditure of this amount of money 
materially advanced the interests of many indi- 
viduals and added to the general prosperity of the 
community at large, is unciuestionable.* 

* I am indebted for the greater piut of tliis history of the 
Sliuhenaciidie C.inal, to Lewis P. Faifl)aiil<3, Esq,, and lie ia 
rosponsilile for the facts, figures, and comments in tlie account. — 
Author'.'i note. 




• indi- 

of tlie 





/pHE earliest communication between Dartmouth 
and Halifax must liave been very irrcifjular, 
and consequently detrimental to the growth 
of the place. The government, therefore, decided to 
e.stal)lish a ferry between the two towns, and to 
appoint a ferryman who should act under prescribed 
regulations as to the charges and time of transit. 
Accordingly, at a council held at the house of 
Governor Cornwall is, on Monday, 3rd February, 1752, 
the following resolution was passed and entered on 
the mirmte-book : — 

" Whereas, it has been represented to his Excel- 
lency the Govr., and to his Majesty's Council of this 
Province, 'JMiat great Inconvenience dayly [xic] 
attends the Inhabitants of the Towns of Halifax and 
Dartmouth within the said i^rovince occasioned by 
the Want of a constant Ferry Boat being established 
between the said Towns: by reason whereof they 
are often prevented from following their lawfun [sic] 
Occasions, and frequently greatly imposed u|)on by 
those persons who do at present j)]y the s;ud Ferry, 
in the prices they demand for the transportation of 
persons and Goods ; 

*Froni tlie Ijcgiiining of this chapter to page 49, is inserted by 
the editor. 





" And Whereas John Connor, of tlie Town of 
Dartuiouth aforesaid, has humhly represented to the 
Govr. and Council that ho hath, at considerable 
Expence and Charge provided Two ^ood and suffi- 
cient Boats suitahle to V)e employ 'd in the aforesaid 
Ferry, iirayintj that lie may be allowed to improve 
the said Boats in the Ferry aforesaid, exclusive of 
any other person, for such a Term of Years and 
under such Kef]fulation, as may by his Excellency and 
the Council from time to time be thought proper. 

" It is therefore Vty his Excel'cy and Council 
Resolved, and V»y the Authority thereof enacted : 

" That the said John Conner [sic] shall, and is 
hereby authorised to have, hold, use, occupy, employ, 
possess and enjoy the aforesaid Ferry between the 
sd. Towns of Halifax and J)arhnouth, for his own 
proper use & benefit for and during the Term of 
Three Years from the Date hereof, under the several 
Regulations and Restrictions herein after mention'd ; 

" Viz , That the said John Connor do immediately 
provide, and constantly keep supplied for and during 
the aforesaid Term of Three Years Two good and suffi- 
cient Boats for the use of the said Ferry to transport 
such passengers and Baggage and other Goods suital'lc 
to be transported in such Boats as there may be occa- 
sion to have transported to and from the aforesd. 
Towns of Halifax and Dartmouth and shall con- 
stantly keep the said Two Boats, or more, passing 
and repassing in the said Ferry, in proper Weather, 
as follows. Viz. : From Sunrise to SunSet every Day 
in the Week, excepting Sundays, when the sd. Boats 
shall pass only twice, for tlie Accommodation of 
persons attending Divine Service And the said John 
Connor, (at present, and until further Order,) or liis 
Servants, any or either of them shall demand and 
receive of and from each passenger l)y him or them 
transported across the said Ferry the Sum of Three 



pence and no more lietween Fun Rise an<l Hun Sit, 
nn<l tlic sum "f Sixpence and no more at any other 
hour. And the said Coiuior hy himself or Servants 
sliall not cause an}' passenf^er so transj)orted, to pay 
any Sum whatsoever for any Ba^'ga^e or Matters 
whatever which the sd. passen^t rs respectively shall 
carry in tiieir Hands, hut all passengers shall pay a 
reasonable price for any other Ka^;j[a^e, Gt)ods, or 
Thing's whatsoever hy them ti"ans))orted in the said 
Boats, and if any Dispute shall arise touching the 
same it shall be determin'd l»y one of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace. And if the said Jolin Connor, 
or any, or either of his Servants shall demand of or 
cause any passen^'er or pas^er.^ers to pay for their 
passii^e more than the Sums above mentioned, he or 
they respectively, upon Conviction thereof, before 
any one of his Majesty's Justices of the peace, upon 
the Oath of such pas.sen^er or passengers, shall 
forfeit and pay the Sum of forty shillings, for each 
Otfenc(\ one half to the Informer and the other half 
to the Use of the Poor, to be levied by distress, and 
Sale of the Goods and Chattels of the Otlender, by 
warrant under the hand and Seal of such Justice of 
the peace before whom the sd. Conviction shall be 
made. And for want of such sufficient the 
Offender to suffer Two months Imprisonment. 

"And no person or persons whatsoever, other 
than the aforesaid John Connor and his Servants, 
shall from and after the publication hereof, carry or 
transport any passenger or passengers, between the 
Towns of Halifax & Dartmouth aforesaid for hire 
dui'ing the aforesaid Term of three years on penalty 
of TeTi shillings for each person .so carried or tians- 
ported, upon conviction thereof before any one of his 
Majesty's Justices of the peace, upon the Oath of one 
credil)le Witness, to be levied by the Distress and 
Sale of the Offenders Goods and Chattels by Warrant 



under tluj hand and seal of tlio s'ii(l Justico one 
moiety to the fnforincr, and the othiT Mnicty to the 
Use of the poor, anil for want of siieh sutHoicnt 
Disti'iiss the ollonder to sufier Two Months ] son- 


On 22nd Deconiher, 1752, the conniMl permitted 
John Connor to assign his property of the ferry to 
Henry Wynne and William Manthorne. The latter 
were to give hond in the penalty of thirty pounds 
for the ])erforinance of the conditions of the aet of 
the j)revious ?'(d»ruary. 

This John Connor was doubtless one of the men 
who afterwards saile(l from Halifax on the 0th of 
February, 1753, and returned with James 0»'acc on 
the 15th of April of the sani«3 year, in 'anoe, 

bringing six Indian scaljis. They were exan. jd by 
the council, and their aeeount of how t'.iey obtained 
the scalps will be f(jnnd in Murdoch's History of 
Nova Scotia (vol. 11, page 210). Surveyor Moi-ris in 
a letter to Cornwallis in England, dated l(>th April, 
1753, refers to Grace's companion as " John Conner, 
acme leged [[(ossibly ' eyed 'J man I'oi-mei-ly one of 
your bargemen" (Vi(h Manuscript, Xo. 102, in 
Legislative Librar}', Halifax). 

* ?oe MS. Miiiutos of Council, vol. I (No. 18S of MS. 
of tlie provino<>), page.i 114-140, preserved in the i'rovinoiiil .Secre- 
tary's Office, ILiIifax. 




At II ivmiK'il lit'ld on Htli March, ITj.'i, Wymio 
jiiid MiiMlli(»i"n<! |K'titi<)ii<'(l tliiit tilt' t'eriy liouts 
iiii;,'lit lie jicrinitted to jmss lictvvccn tlu* towns at 
Ktatcfl lioiu's in tlic day. It was thcroforc! ivsolved 
that th(! hoats shouhl oi'oss nil thn year round at 
snn-riso and sun-sot, and likovviso that between the 
25th of Mairh and th(! 20th of Sej)tend)er, they 
sliould do so at the hours of eifjlit, twidve, and four, 
iind between the 2f)th of S(!ptend)er and the 25th of 
Mai-ch, at ten in the inorninfj and at two in tho 
afterjioon. f)n Sundays, however, the boats were 
only to pass twice, the trips then bein(( made for the 
accommodation of persons iittendinfj divine service. 
It was likewise ordered at the same meetini,', that 
the refjulations of the ferry bo printed, and that 
the ferryman be obli d always to keep these re;^'u- 
lations posted nj) in soiiio public roojn in each of 
tliiMr houses, at Halifax and at Dartmouth, for the 
infoi'umtion of all persons concerned. 

On the ^Gth of January, 1750, a petition from 
John Rock was read before the council at Halifax, 
pi'ayinff that the propei'ty of the ferry mi(,dit be 
vested in him, as the term for which it was ^-i-anted 
to the late proprietors, Wyimo and Manthonie, luul 
expired. The latter, he said, were absent, and the 
ferry at the time unoccupied. He was accordingly 
given leave to employ two boats in the ferry, upon 




the same terms granted to Wynne and Man- 

Who immediately succeeded John Rock is not 
known, but about the year 1797, John Skerry began 
running a public ferry, and continued so employed 
until after the advent of the steam-boat company. 
He was familiarly known as " Skipper " Skerry, and 
a few of the oldest inhabitants still remember the 
man and speak of him in words of praise. The 
Dartmouth terminus of his ferry was directly at the 
foot of Ochterloney Street, and the Halifax landing 
was at the Market Slip. He occupied the building, 
which still stands, on the south-east coi'ner of 
Ochterloney and Water Streets, and there kept a 
small bar. The second lot fi'om the north-west 
corner of Quarrel and Water Streets, likewise 
belonged to him, together with the water-lot imme- 
diately in the rear. His ferrymen, previous to 
leaving the landing, cried " Over! Over !", and then 
blew a conch as a signal of departure. The boats 
were large. They were either sailed or rowed, 
acconling to the wind, and occupied about thirty 
or forty minutes in crossing from shore to shoi'e. 

Another ferry ran to a wharf at the foot of the 
old Ferry Road, at Dr. Parker's, near Dartmouth 

* Vide MS. Minutes of Council, vol. 2 (No. 187 of MS. Records 
of N. s.), pp. 403-404. 



C(no. It was known tis Creighton's or tlie Lower 
Fen y. James Creighton, Esq., was the proprietor. 
He is said to have owned all the lands which are 
now the property of J. P. Mott and Dr. Parker, and 
also the tract known as Prince Arthur's Park.* 
These lands had l)een originally granted in 1752 
to Capt. William Clapham, Samuel Blackdon, and 
John Salisbury, (F/(/6 Lib. 2, fol. lo7, 298, and 161, 
Registry of Deeds, Halifax) and were cither pur- 
chased by, or else escheated and regranted to, 
Creighton. The period at which the Lower Ferry 
was started, is uncertain. It was chiefly for the 
accommodation of persons coming from the country 
to the eastward of the town. The Koca Scotia 

• James Creighton, Esq., was one of the largest lanileil pro- 
prietors in Dartmouth. His land, from near the present residence 
of the Motts to within a short distance of the Insane Asylum, was 
sold, in lots, to meet mortgage claims about the year 1S4.5 or 18.')(), 
perhaps earlier. Mr. Creighton was a son of James Creighton, 
an early settler in Halifax. He was father of the late James 
(ieorge Andrew Creighton of the firm of Creighton and tirassie of 
Halifax, and also of the late George Creighton. who married 
Isabella Grassie, and whose sons now occupy situations in Halifax. 
One of the sisters of the first James Creighton married Capt. 
Crichton, R. N., who was the father of tiie late (Jeorge Augustus 
Seymour Crichton, Es(j., of Dartmouth ; another sister married 
Capt. Thomas Maynard, R. N., whose son is the Kev. T. Mayuard, 
D.D., rector of Christ Church, Windsor, N. S— />;•. Akins' MS. 
Note. James Creighton, the elder, died in Halifax, on Tuesday, 
20th April, KHl.S, in the eighty-first ytar of his age. He was a 
native of England, and came to Nova Scotia in 1749, at which 
time he was only about sixteen yeais of age. 





nisTonY or DAnTMOuTn. 

Royal Gdzeffr, of lf)th Marcli, 1S17, contaitis an 
a(lvertis(Miient, sifjned by James Creif^hton, which 
offers to let "that very eli^^'ible situation called the 
Dartmouth Feri-y, now in the occupation of Mr. Peter 
M'Callum." The notice states that on the premises 
are a good house, outhouses, an extensive barn and 
stable, with a whart' for the us(! of tlie terry,* and 
the ])lace is "cojiveniently sitiiated for a house of 

When the team-boat S/ierhrooke made her first 
trip o!i 8th November, LSKi, both Mr. Creio-hton 
and Skerry must have known tliat their boats 
would ultimately have to cease I'unning. Up to this 
time, the only nunnier of crossino- the harbour, was 
in ojii'n boats propelled by oars. These boats were 
often heavily laden, and with adverse winds, it is 
said they were fi-e(pieiitly hours in mnkirig the ti'ip 


oss. From their size and stvle, thev were pc 


conveyances, not only for passen^vrs, but also for 
tlie increasinij amount of produce which was cominj; 
from the eastei-n settlements to the Halifax market. 
A stru<,^oIe for existence now took place between 
the riviil lines. The team-boat wanted exclusive 
rio-ht, and the old ferries asked that they be not 
disturbed by tliu new company. On "iOtii February, 

* riukcf's wliiii'f la l)uilt on the t-ite of tliis wliiiif. 'I'lie old 
wharf iliil not run at a riirlit i\n<'\v. to the shore. 






ISliS, Jiiines Creio'hton ami John Skerry })resente(l a 
petition for relief to the House of Assembly, statinj^ 
that for a number of yeaivs each had been in posses- 
sion of a feriy which had been n.aintained at 
considerable expense, and that they were likely 
to be much injured in consecpience of the Steani- 
bo;;t Company beinf,' about to emj>loy boats of a 
small description.* Another petition was presented 
by Skerry, in January, 182 b The company retali- 
ated by asking- for the sole ])rivilege of running a 
ferry, which was refused by tl'.e House. 

Skeriy finally sold his boats to the conipanj', 
iind letired fr(an business. He died on 1st Sep- 
tember, 1888, tiged 74 \ ears, and was buried in 
the old Catholic liuryiuir Ground to the west of 
the Dartmouth Common. He is said to have lieen 
an excellent man — one who was pj'aised by all who 
knew him. 

At some time previous to 1825, Joseph Findlay, 
foi'uierly captain of the team-boat, became the lessee 
of Creighton's Ferry. "f- He ran two huge boats for 
ordinary tratlic ; and in busy times, four. They 
were either I'owed or saih'd, according to the wind. 

* Tlit'se lunst have ln'cii tlie Ijoats wliicli wiTe known as 
" (wiiulurt:." See a hul)Se(jiieiit page. 

tile liail been preceded at ("reigliton's Ferry, by Tl.umas {':) 



Each boat carried from fifteen to thirty passengers, 
and was managed by two men who were often 
assisted by the passengers. Tlie number of trips 
made each day, varied according to the weather ; 
usually one was made every hour. The fare was 
four-pence for an ordinary traveller, and from one 
to one and a half penny for each coloured person.* 
Like Skerry's boats, those of the Lower Ferry blew 
a conch and cried " Over !" as a notice of departure. 
They also landed at the Market Slip in Halifax. 
When the harbour was lightly covered with ice, a 
man — sometimes one of the passengers — stood in the 
bow and with a mallet-like instrument opened the 
way in advance of the boat. Findlay had a snug 
little inn or ferry-house at the Dartmouth terminus. 
Behind this building was a verdant hillock, and 
before it a stream went babbling beneath the old 
willow trees and flowed into the sea near the ferry 
wharf. A lawn-tennis court has since been formed 
on the site of the house, all traces of which have 

About 1829 or LS30, Findlay was succeeded by 
Thomas Brewer, who put on a sloop-rigged boat. 
He managed the business luitil about 1832 or 1833, 
when he retired, and the Lower Ferry ceased to 

8kerry cliaigcil about the same rates. 



exist. This left the Steam-boat Company without 
a rival.* 

In 1796 a company was formed and incorporated 
by act of legislature, for the purpose of Ijuilding a 
bridge of boats or some similar structure, which was 
to commence from the vicinity of Black Rock, Dart- 
mouth, and to terminate near the northern side of 
the Naval Hospital, Halifax. Every encouragement 
was given to the woi'k. The company was author- 
ized to establish a toll for ninety-nine years, and it 
was to be the owner of the bridge for that period. 
At the end of the ninety-nine years, however, the 
bridge was to become the property of the public. 
The company having been incorporated, nothing 
further was done in the matter. 

Some forty-five years ago, a similar project was 

undertaken at the instance of Arthur Godfrej', Esq. 

A company was formed with the object of bridging 

the Narrows. A screw-boat was run for a short 

time between Richmond and the opposite shore, the 

screw being moved by cranks turned by the hand. 

The plan and manner of work were novel, and 

excited a good deal of interest for a time. The 

enterprise, however, soon collapsed, probably from 

its own impracticability. 

* The editor had to cancel the whole of Mrs. Lawson's 
account of the ferries up to the end of this paragraph. He has 
collected new information, and written the account de novo. — Ed. 



In 1815 an act was pcassed giving the governor 
power to incorporate a number of gentlemen under 
the name of the Halifax Steamboat Company. The 
company was to continue in operation for twenty- 
five years, and to enjoy the exchisiive right of 
runninfj steamers, Vmt it was not to interfere with 
the established line of ferry boats. Some years 
afterwards, the right to run the latter was purchased 
by the company from Mr. John Skerry, the active 
manager of the smaller conveyances. 

After the act was passed, it was decided that a 
team-boat might be made suitable for transit and 
freight, and the compaiy was accordingly allowed to 
substitute a boat pi -elled by horse-power, for the 
same period and with the same rights and privileges 
as were conferred by the first act. 

Tiie names of the original shareholders in the 
Halifax Team-Boat Company, formed in 1815, are 
given below : — 

Hon. Sampson S. Blowers, 
Thomas Nicholson JefFery, 
Dr. William B. Almon, 
Thomas Heaveside, 
John Starr, 
John Stayner, 
Charles Morris, jr., 
Michael Tobin, 

Hon. Michael Wallace, 
Charles Morris, senr., 
Thomas Boggs, 
William Lawson, 
Frederick Major, 
Jonathan Tremaine, jr, 
John Tremaine, 
John Albro, 



Charles R. Fairbanks, Richard Treniaine, 
Samuel Cunanl, Robert Hartshorne, 

Henry H. Co<^'swell, William Bowie, 

Andrew Wri^dit, John Clarke, 

Charles Rufus Fairbaidcs, Seci'darij. 

Ill 181G a team-l)oat was built and placed on 

the ferry.* The yava Scolia Royal Gazette of 

27th August, ]NI7, contains the following advei'tise- 

n»ent : 

Halifax Team-Boat Company. 

Hherhrooh! Teann-Boat. 

The Committee appointed to conduct the business 
of the Halifax Team Boat Company, beg leave to 
inform the Public, that the Slterlyrooke continues to 
ply between their wharf at Dartmouth and the 

* Tlie Tuani-hoat was lauiiclied on Moiulay, SOtli Scptemljcr, 
ISIG ; and on Friday, Stli Xovf;inl)er, of the same y(3ar, it made 
itstlrst trip from D.utii'.outli to Messrs. Fairlianks's wharf at Halifax 
(See Weekly Chronicle, Sth Xoveniber, 181(5, and the Acadian 
liecoider of the nt'xt day). The hoat must have afterward-* 
ceafacd nuinini; for a time, for the X. S. lioyal Oazilte of '28th 
May, 1817, says that it commenced its operation on the morning 
of that day. Its terminus at Dartmouth was at the foot of 
Portland Street, wliere the present steamboats land. The first 
grant of town and water-lots to the company, is dated SOtli 
August, 1810 (Vidf (Jrmt iiooks, Lib. (i., fol. 16). It names 
town-lots, numbers 1 and 'J, Letter U, and number 7, Letter W, 
also the water-lots in front of lots U 1, 2, and 3, and \V 7. 
For subset^uent grants, see (irant Books, Lib. '29, fol. 70 (1818), 
and Lib. I, fol. 70 (1820), also a grant dated 1830. The team-boat 
was assisted by two or three small boats known as " (jrinders." 
They were propelled Ijy side-wheels, which were mo 'id by an 
iron crank turned by manual ])ower. These conveyances usually 
ran between the trips of the large boat. —Ed. 





; I 

Market Slip, from sunrise until one hour after 
sunset, rem;iininff fifteen minutes on each side the 
harbour. The Committee also inform the Public, 
that they have reduced the Rates of Fares for 
Cattle, and Carria<^es of every description ; and 
that they are proceeding to prepare a coinfortal)le 
Ferry House at Dartmcjuth, and more extensive 
stabling for Horses, &:c. 

Every exertion will be made to accommodate 
Passengers, and to give satisfaction. 


I. s. d. 

For each passenger, above ten years of age .... 4 

Do. under 10 j'ear.s of age 2 

A horse, ox, or cow I 

A hog, sheep, goat or calf 3 

A four wheel carriage 1 

A gig 6 

A truck, cart, butcher's or baker's waggon. . . .0 3 

A waggon or sled load of hay 2 

Ditto returning empty 1 

A sled or truck load of wood 1 

Ditto returning empty 3 

A pipe, puncheon, or hogshead 1 

A barrel 3 

Grain or roots per bushel 1 

Chest, box, or trunk . . 3 

Halifax, 23rd. August, 1817. 

Dr. Akins {History of Halifax, new edition) 
describes the Sherbrooke as consistinjj of two boats 
or hulls united by a platform, with a paddle between 
the boats. The deck was surrounded by a round 
house containing a large cogwheel arranged horizon- 
tally, to which were attached eight or nine horses 



harnessed to iron stanchions cominj^ down from the 
wheel. As the horses moved round, the wheel, 
by means of connecting' f,'ear, revolved the paddle. 
The trips varied in time according to wind and 
weather; often occupying half an hour in crossing, 
sometimes making the passage in less than fifteen 
minutes. These boats, which were always inade- 
quate to the travel and freight of the ferry 
were at last superseded by more convenient craft. 
In 1828 the company gave orders to Mr. Alexander 
Lyle- —who for some years had owned a ship- 
yard of good repute in Dartmouth — for the 
construction of a steam-boat of thirty horse-power. 
This steamer was called the Sir Charles Ogle 
in honour of the admiral of that name who was 
then on the North American and West Indian 
station. The steam-engine placed in this boat was 
the first introduced into Nova Scotia.* In 1832, 
another steamer of tho same size and strength was 
built by Mr. Lyle at the same shipyard. It was 
called the Boxer, in honour and grateful recognition 
of the services of Capt. Edward Boxer, of H. M.S. 
Hussar, who with a party of sailors had succeeded in 
getting the Sir C. Ogle clear when she had stuck on 

•This is a mistake. The General Mining Association intro- 
duced the first steam-engine into Nova Scotia. ( Vide Campbell's 
History of X. S., p. 282.)- Ed. 




the "ways" at the time of hiunchinf];.* In 1844' a 
third steamer was added to the Dartmouth ferry 
fleet. This was one of fort}' hoi'.se-power, Like the 
two steamers precedinnr her, she was built in Lyle's 
shipyard. Slie was called the Micmac in memory 
of the native Indian trihe whose tomahawks had 
been cruelly used upon the first settlers of Dart- 
mouth. Some years after, about LSGf), the Boxer 
was sold, and another steamer, the C/iehucto, was put 
In her place.-f* This boat was built in a yard near the 
Steamboat Company's wharf. The machinery of the 
Boxer was transferred to tiie new steamer, and is 
still used to propel that boat. She is not as larf^e as 
the Micmac. The latter is regarded as a safe and 
comfortable boat, 

Each of the steamers during its many years 
of harbour travel, had worn out many boilers and 
much machinerj'', but the old hulks still remained. 
Sometimes widened, sometimes lengthened, now and 
then fitted with new cabins and additional seats, 
occasionally cleaned and painted, — the boats have 
became so changed in details, that the original 
builder could hardly recognize any of his work and 

*She wa3 launched Ist January, 1830. — Ed, 
f The Boxer was changed into a lighter and employed in the 
West Indiv^n trade. — Ed. 



Passengers clumped and passed away, but the old 
boats remained. Having made haste slowly, they 
seemed to survive in perpetual youth; and Halifax 
and Dartmouth appeared to have settled down to the 
belief that nothin<( better was required for their 
ferry accommodation. The age is called one of 
progress, but the Dartmouth Steamboat Company 
was conservative and faithful to its belief in the 
perfection of the past. The Ogle, Chehucto, and 
Micmac would have been justified in taking up the 
refrain, " Men may come and men may go, but we 
go on forever." 

In 188G a change was made in the ownership and 
directorate. A new company was formed, containing 
the names of many of the old sharehoklers together 
with a number of new ones. Larger an<l faster 
boats and better accommodation were promised, but 
up to hS88 the ancient trio had neither associates 
nor rivals. For many years the secretary and 
manager of the company was Edward H. Lowe, Es(i., 
a respectable resident of Dartmouth. At his death 
the management fell to the genial care of Capt. 
George Mackenzie. Ho was afterwards laid aside 
by illness, and younger men took charge of the 
affairs of the new company. 

In 1888, a fine steamer called the Dartmouth 
was built and placed on the ferry. Her first 






trip was mado on 17th Juno, She was a f^reat 
improvement over the old boats. 

It is generally understood, that while the corn- 
party's Ht earners were of the greatest import- 
ance to the people of Dartmouth, the returns 
were largely remunerative to the shareholders. 

In the spring of 1800 the Halifax and Dartmouth 
Steam Ferry Company withdrew the privilege of 
commutation rates. The indignant citizens there- 
upon formed a committee which purchased the 
steamer Arcadia on the 31st March, 1890, and 
carried foot-passengers across for one cent. This 
of course was at a great loss. A Ferry Commis- 
sion was appointed on the 17th April, under the 
provisions of Chapter 83 of the Acts of 1890, 
passed on the 15th April, and the body organized 
on the 24th of the same month. This commis- 
sion purchased the Arcadia from the citizens 
committee, and she continued to run in competi- 
tion with the old ferry line until the 30th June.* 
A boat capable of undertaking the complete team 
service was now required, aud finally the steamer 
Annex 2, of the Brooklyn Annex Line rr 
between Brooklyn and New Jersey, was \ii: 

* The boat ran between Campbell's whai f , ^ utmouth , and 
the city wharf, Halifax. — Ed. 



for S25,0()(). The steamer arrived at Dartmouth 
on the niglit of 11th July. Thousands of people 
flocked to see her, and many stood on a movaMo 
pUitform at the end of Lawlor's wharf to 
which she was being moored. The great weight 
snapped two of the chains which sustained the 
platform, and about forty people were precipitated 
into the water. After the greatest excitement, 
all were rescued except four. These were Miss 
Bessie Foster, aged twenty-two, daughter of Edward 
Forster, Esq., Ella Synott, aged nineteen, daujLjh- 
ter of Mr. Michael Synott, Peter Boyle, aged 
sixty-five, and a coloured lad, John Bundy, aged 
eleven. The tragedy caused much sorrow, and 
the families of the victims had the sympathy of all 

Negotiations had been entered into with wharf 
proprietors on both sides of the harbour, with the 
view of procuring suitable docks, but at last the 
Steam Ferry Company, daunted by the blustering 
tones of its opponents, consented to sell its property 
for 8109,000. The sale took place on the 1st July, 
but the company continued to run the boats until 
the 15th of that month. Thus terminated an 
exciting contest between the company and the town, 
which had been carried on with more or less vigour 
during the previous three months. The commission 



■1 K, 



raised their fare to three cents, jukI in 1891, 
advanced it to four cents — but little cheaper than 
the old rate. A new waitinj^-house wis erected at 
Halifax, and other improvements made. In the 
spring of 1893, the Ghehudo was sold for 8375. 
The Annex 2 is now known as the Halifax* 

The steamboats leave the dock on each side 
every quarter of an hour, bearing their motley 
freight, peculiar to each season. Brooms and baskets, 
may flowers and ferns, water-lilies, and the wild 
berries of the woods, ice-carts, milk-waggons, broad 
loads of hay, market pi'oduce, clothes-props, poles 
and hoops, and spruce trees, fashionaVile equipages 
and teamsters' drays, — every variety and stjde of 
commodity and vehicle may be found on the crowded 

The passage across the harbour is made in ten 
minutes. Dartmouth is seen to great advantage in 
the transit. The undulating hills in tlie distance, 
the luxariant growth of native trees covering each 
elevation, the broad harbour stretching out to the 
Atlantic, the pretty villas dotted all over the land- 
scape from the Windmill to Fort Clarence, can all be 
seen and admired in one brief passage from shore to 
shoi'c. The steamers, with their varying passengers, 

This ami the preceding paragraph, are inserted l>y the 





are worlds in miniature,— grave men of business, 
light-hearted girls, noisy school-boys, merry darkies, 
solemn squaws, chattering French peasants, stolid 
labourers, men and women of leisure and of fashion, 
may all be seen on these boats as they pass to and 
fro, from six o'clock in the morning until midnight. 
Dartmouth without its steamboats, would not be 
Dartmouth. " Tlie Boat " is the one great element 
in their daily life. Many of the residents have their 
business in Halifax, and they are obliged to cross 
several times a day. Transient population and 
visitors live in a perpetual effort to be in time for 
the ferry. Residents are more philosophic, and 
maintain a happy state of agreement between their 
watches and the time of the boats, and they thus 
find no difficulty in being at the wharf when the 
bell i-ings previous to the closing of the gates. 

For some years a ferry has run between Rich- 
mond, Halifax, and the ])artmouth shore to the 
westward of the old Windmill. RoM'boats are 
employed on the line. It is no doubt a great con- 
venience to those who reside in that quarter. 









THERE is very little to record in the history of 
Dartmouth from the date of the exodus of 
the Quakers. In the year 1809, it contained 
only nineteen dwelling houses.* These had been 
built by the Quakers. Previous to their settlement 
in the town, the buildings were probably log-huts or 
shanties of the poorest kind. 

During the war between France and England, 
Halifax Harbour was the rendezvous of the navy, 
and many of the prizes with prisoners of war 
were brought into port. Several of the latter, 

* According to M. B. Desbrisay, the town at this time 
contained a tannery, a bakery, and a grist-mill. ( Vide, "Sketches 
of Dartmouth," Provincial Magazine, 1852, page 423.) On a 
military plan dated 1808, there appears a dismantled fort close to 
the shore at Black Rock Point. It is named Fort DuDcan, and is 
about one hundred and fifty feet square. It is not marked on 
another military map of 1784, and consequently must have been 
built and abandoned between those dates. — Ed, 



cliieHy tlie common men of the French crews, were 
lodfjed in the prison on Melville Island, near the 
North West Arm. Others were kept in conHnemont 
on the Dartmouth side, in a huilding near the Cove, 
which now forms a part of one of the factories 
owned l)y John P. Mott, Esq. Here the prisoners, 
who are represented as generally cheerful, indus- 
trious and well-behaved, passed two or three years 
of light-hearted seclusion. Visitors were permitted 
to see them, and they were occasionally allowed to 
ramble abroad within certain limits. They amused 
themselves by manufacturing small articles out of 
bone and wood, such as dominoes, draughtsmen, 
boxes, needles and various little ornaments. These 
found a ready s.ale among their visitors. The 
French officers were on parole, and sevei-al of them 
remained in Dartmouth during their enforced resi- 
dence in Nova Scotia. Others preferred Preston, 
and will be referred to in the history of that 

On September 25th, 1798, and again in Novem- 
ber, 1813, a terrible gale swept the harbour of 
Halifax, doing great damage to the shipping at the 
wharves. Many of the vessels were broken from 
their moorings and drifted over to Dartmouth. The 
shore on that side, for some distance along tha town, 
was covered with fragments from the wrecks. 



These storms are said to have V)een the most violent 
and destructive ever felt in Nova Scotia.* 

In 1829, the population of Dartmouth numT)ere<l 
nine hundred and sixty individuais.f In 1852 it 
had grown into a town with three liundred houses, 
and about fifteen hundre<l inhabitants. The manu- 
factories then in operation included two foundaries, 
five tanneries, one chocolate manufactory, three 

*Tlic gale of 1813, wliich came from tlie south-east, occurred 
on Friday, Noveinher 12tli. It l)p;,Mn at about o o'clock p. m. and 
continued with gruat violence until al)out 7. In little more than 
an hour, few ships were left at their anchors anil of these there 
was scarcely one which had not sustained some material injury. 
An account of tiio storm will he found in Murdoch's History of 
Nova Scotia, vol. Ill, pages S'lU-vlGO. In the storm of .Septemlier, 
1798, shipping, wharves, and other property, were destroyed, to 
the vahie of nearly £100,000, and most of the roads were rendered 
impassaljle from the falling of trees across them. — E<(. 

t Dr. Akins in an unsigned pencil note in this essay, says, 
that " the village in 1820 contained at least sixty houses, if not 
more." Mr. Lawrence llartshorne and Mr. Jonathan Treuiaine 
were at that time carrying on the manufacture of (lour. Their 
grist-mill— a very large building — was situated in Dartmouth Cove, 
on the eastsiue of the river flowing from the First Lake. When 
the canal was being constructed, a long race was built to con- 
venience the mill. About ten or twelve years after this, the mill 
ceased io be used, and it was subsequently destroyed by fire. The 
foundation of the building may still be seen, and the old store 
stands on the shore of the Cove, where the water from the 
Dartmouth Lakes flows into the sea. At a ball given by the 
governor and Mrs. VVentw^rth on December 20th, 1792, the 
supper was embellished by - cral ornaments, among which was a 
representation of Messrs. Hartshorne and Tremaine's 7ien' dour 



grist mills nnd a nail mill. Several of these were 
driven l.y steam power. From that time the 
town has aone on ([uietly but steadily improving. 
Numerous industries have taken root and flourished. 
They will all ])e described in order. 

The shipyards of Messrs. Lyle * and Chapel, 
opened about 182:}, employed a large number of 
workmen. 'J'hese firms had a goo.l reputation as 
superior builders, and for years their business was 
most prosperous. The " Barbara " was built in the 
shi])yard of the formei-. She ran from Galway to 
Haliax with emigrants in twelve days. The first 
vessel l)uilt in Dartmouth was called the " Maid of 
the Mill," and was used in the trade of the grist- 
mill then In full operation. When a large ship was 
completed at the ship-yard, the time of her launch 
was a gala-day for Dartmouth. Some fair leader in 
Halifax society was generally chosen to christen 
the ship. A crowd of spectators gathered to witness 
the scene, a military band attended, flags waved in 
honour of the occasion, and the ship passed away 
from the place of her creation, amidst music, cheer.s, 
and applause. 

•Lyie's shipyard vas immediately to the northwest of the 
Ciiebucto Marine Kaihvay. A note on a map in the Crown Lands 
OaSce, Halifax, says that Alexander Lyle received a grant of the 
water lots there, on April ]2tli, 1837.— £"(/. 



I' -S 


1 1 

In 1845, a Mechanics' Institute was erected by 
the people of ]3artmouth. This was the first 
buihling for that purpose known in Nova Scotia 
and it has done much service in the social and, 
literary history of the place. 

In the fall of 1S.')9, the Scottish Rifles, Chebucto 
Greys, and other volunteer companies were ori]fan- 
ized in Halifax. Early in 1860 Dartmouth followed 
that city's example, and formed a company known 
as the Dartmouth Rifles. The captain was David 
Falconer, and the lieutenants were J. W. Johnston 
(now Jud^e Johnst(m) and Jose])h Austen. The 
company drilled in Dartmouth until May, 18G0, when 
it united with five Halifax companies and formed the 
Halifax Volunteei" Battalion. In December, 1861, the 
Dartmouth Rifles were inspected by Gen. Dojde, and 
in January following by Col. Taylor. On account of 
tlie formation of the Dartmouth Engineers, and the 
small size of the town, the Rifles found it difficult 
to keep their ranks filled. Lieut. Johnston resigned 
liis commission, and in June, 1803 [18G4?] Capt. 
Falconer gave up command. The company disbanded 
on July 1st, as it was not up to the required strength. 
The Dartmouth Engineers were formed a month 
after the organization of the Dartmouth Rifles. 
The company was formed of men connected with 
mechaniciil pursuits. The first captain was Richard 



Hartshorne and the lieutenants were Thomas A. 
Hyde and Thomas Synnott. On May 14th, 1861, 
Hartshorne resigned, and Hyde took command of 
the company. In November, W. H. Pallister of 
Hahfax was elected captain. Having heen unable 
to obtain instruction as engineers, the company 
entered the Halifax Volunteer Battalion in 1802 
and was known as the 2nd Dartmouth. In 1863, 
W. W. Smith, M. D., was elected surgeon, and in 
1865 he was succeeded by J. B. Gar vie, M. 1). In 
the latter year, W. S. Symonds became captain and 
S. R. Sircom and J. W. Hay, lieutenants. During 
the Fenian alarm in the summer of 1866, the 
company was called out for garrison duty under 
Capt. Symonds and Lieutenants Sircom, Hay and 
Campbell. In February, 1871, Hay was promoted 
to the rank of captain. The company did not 
attend drill in a satisfactory manner, and it soon 
after ceased to exist.* 

A Fire Engine Company was established in 1822, 
an Axe and Ladder Company in 1865, and a Union 
Protection Company in 1876. 

Dartmouth was incorporated b}'^ an act of 
assembly passed in the year 1873. The municipal 

• J he above paragraph has been inserted by the editor. Vide 
Thomas J. Egan'a lliatory of the Halifax Volaritfr Battalion 
and Volunteer GompanieH, Halifax, 1888, pages 157-102. 



affairs are conducted by a warden and six coun- 
cillors, and all local matters are provided for and 
arranged by this court. 

W. S. Syrnonds was elected the first warden. 
There were three wards allotted to the township, 
and two councillors for each ward, namely : Ward 1, 
J, W. Johnstone, Joseph W. Allen ; Ward 2, John 
Forbes, William F. Murray; Ward 3, Thomas A. 
Hyde, Francis Mnmford. Thomas Short was the 
clerk. The first meeting of the council was held, 
23rd May, 1873, at the residence of the warden. 
The officers are elected annually. 

The town has grown and improved very much 
du'ing the last ten or twenty years. The popula- 
tion in 1871 was 3,786. In 1886, thirty houses, 
one school-house, and a x*ailway station were built 
within its limits. The number of inhabitants in 
1887 was probably about five thousand. The pro- 
gress of the place is very much increased by the 
many manufactories established and flourishing 

The old Presbyterian Church near the corner 
of King and North Streets, was formerly used as 
a town-hall, but it was afterwards discarded, and 
the Mechanics' Institute building now contains the 
civic offices. A bell-tower has been erected on the 
old church and it is now a fire-engine house 



Besides these buildings. ])artinouth contains a 
Reform Club Hall, an exhibition building and 
skating rink, and several school-houses.* Nearly all 
of these are the outcome of its growth during 
the last twenty years. 

Several changes have taken place in Dartmouth 
during the last six years.f A number of tiiese have 
been mentioned from time to time in the foot-notes. 
About the beginning of 1891, a public reading-room 
was established. It is situated near the ferry docks, 
and is much used by the inhabitants. The mayor in 
his report, says he believes it to be the only free 
roading-rooin in the province. The town deserves 
much credit for thus placing current literature 
before all its people, fiee of charge. 

Until recently, the town of Dartmouth had 
obtained its water from public wells and pumps, 
of which, in 1800, there were about nineteen of the 
former and eighteen of the latter. The idea of 
supplying the town from some of the surroundin*^ 

*The schools of Dartmouth in 189.3, are : Central, on Quarrel 
Street ; Elliot School-H.nise. on Diuulas Street ; Greenvale, on 
Ochterlonc-y Street ; Hawthorne, on Hawthorne Street ; Park, on 
Wiii.huill Road ; Stairs's Street, for ooloure-1 children ; Tufta's 
Cove ; and The Central School-house is on the site of 
the old Quaker meeting-hou«-j ( "^ee pa^c 22. ) — iS'(/. 

tThe remaining paragraphs of this chapter have been inserted 
by the editor, in order to bring the history down to the present 
year (1893). Mrs. Lawson's essay stopped at 1887.— Ed. 






lakes, hiul been entertained for a number of years, 
l)Ut notblng definite hud been done. Finally a 
scheme was formuhited and approved at a public 
meotinf!^ held on 2Gth January, 1891, and an act in 
accordance with the scheme was passed by the 
legislature on I9th May, folio win ijj. A water connnia- 
sion was formed which met on 15th June for organiza- 
tion. The sup))ly was to be obtained from Lamont's 
and Topsail Lakes, wliich are about three miles 
from the town, on the Preston Road. Their com- 
bined area is about 108 acres. On 14th July, C. E. 
W. Dodwell, C. E., was appohited engineer ; and soon 
aftei-, tenders were asked for pipes, etc. The work 
of trenching and laying the main from Pino Street 
to tlie Lakes commenced on 3rd October. When the 
water was turned on the pipes for trial, it was found 
that they leaked in very many places. This had to 
be remedied, and it was not until 2nd November, 
] 892, that the water was turnerl on the town for the 
first time and the line subjected to its full pressure. 

The construction of sewers was also begun 
in 1891. 

Early in 1892, the council made arrangements 
with the Dartmouth Electric Light and Power 
Company to light the streets by electricity. The 
service began on the 13th July of that year. 
Previously the town had been lighted by street- 
lamps, fifty-eight of which were employed in 1891. 



About 1891 a site for a new post-ofRce was 
purchased by the Doiuinion government from the 
ferry commission. The building is now nearly 
finished. It is of brick, but cannot boast of 
architectural beauty. Up to this time, no special 
building had been erected for the purpose. 

In IHHH, the town council decided to place the 
Common under the care of a commission. This 
was done as soon as possiblo. In 1890, four 
hun<lred trees were planted, a pavilion wtls erected, 
and the roads and paths were improved. Since 
then the work of embellishing the place has been 
continued. It is now known as the Dartmouth. 
Park. Further information regarding the Common 
will be found in a note on pages 20 and 21 of 
this history. 

According to McAIpine's Gazdkci^ ami Guide 
for the Maritime Povinces, 1892, the town of 
Dartmouth contains two foundaries, three tanneri(>s, 
forty-five stores, four boarding-houses, one skate 
factory, one rope and t)akum factory, one nail 
factoiy, two saw mills, one soap and spice factoiy 
one carriage and steel sin-ing factory, and copper- 
paint works. 

The population of the town according to the 
census of 1891, was 0,252, an<l the place contained 
1,029 houses. 






ON 3rfl November, 1792, the Bisliop of Nova 
Scotia, the Rev. Dr. Charles Iiif,'liH, adrh'essed a 
letter to the governor, Sir John Wentworth. 
reijuesting him to en^ct Preston, Dartmouth and 
Lawrencetown into one parish by the name of St. 
John's Parish. The re(|uest was laid before council, 
and granted. The parish was accordingly laid out 
as follows : " Begiiuiing at the [»laee of Fort 
Sackville Bridge, being at the conlluenco of Fort 
tSaekvillo River with liedfonl Jiii.sin, and from 
thence to run N. 75 E. by the magnet to the 
northern boundary of the Township of Preston, 
ami thence to be boumled northerly by Preston 
aforesaid; on the east by the east line of Preston 
and by Chizzetcook River and Harbour; on the 
South by the sea coast of Lawrencetown, until it 
comes to tlie south-east entrance into the Harbour 
of Halifax ; and thence running up the .several 
courses of the shores of said Harbour, through the 
Narrows into Bedford Basin aforesaid, and by the 
several courses of the Siiid Basin until it come.s to 




the l)ounds first mentioned ; which inchidcH the 
Townships of Preston, Dartmouth and Lawronce- 
town, and any other settlement within tlie prescribed 
limits, and also to include Cornwallls's (McNab's) 
Island and the Island called Carroll's Island 
in 1792." 

The first church in this extensive parish, was 
built in Preston probal)l;y' about the year 1795, and 
remained the only parish church until 1S16 
On the 10th of June in the latter jeai-, a 
number of the people, inhabitnnts of Dartmouth, 
petitioned the governor, Sir J. C. Sherbrooko, for 
goverment aid to enable them to erect a church on 
the lot in Dartmouth granted by government for 
that purpose. The petition was signed by Jonathan 
Tremaine, H. W. Scott, Robert Hartshorne, Sanuiel 
Albro, Lawrence Hartshorne, jr., and Richard 

This I'oquost was granted, and the foundation of 
the church, now called Christ Church, was laid.* 

* CnuRoii AT Dartmouth. — The Corner-Stone of a Church to 
be erected by subscription of tlie inhabitants of Dartmoulli niul 
Halifax, aiileil by a donation from His I<'xcellency Sir tJoiin C. 
Sherbrooko, was laid at two o'clock tliia day, l)y his KxcelU'iicy 
the Earl of Dalhousie, who has also been a most liberal subscriljcr 
to the undertaking, in the piesence, and under the auspices, of the 
Rij^ht Reverend the Lord Hishop of Nova So )tia, b'ear-Admiral 
Sir David Milne, K. C. B., the Hon. Commissioner Wodehouse, 
the Rev. Dr. Inglis, and many other respectable Piuishit ners. 
(Xova Scotia Royal Gazette, Halifax, 9th July, 1817.)-- A'-/. 



I I 

It does not appear to have been completed until 
1819, but was probably used for divine service 
about 1817. In that year, the Rev. Charles Inglis 
was appointed rector. He married a sister of the 
ate Lawrence Hartshorne, Esq., whose name is 
still lu'ld in honourable memory by all who knew 
him, — an uprir^ht, honest and benevolent man, a 
good citizen and a faithful friend, of him it may 
be truly said, that "ho bore without abuse, the 
grand old name of guntleman." The Hartshornes, 
Tromainos, Creightons, Fosters and Albros are 
among the oldest residents and best known 
families of Dartmouth. The standard bearers of 
their names, with the exception of G. A. Creighton, 
Esq., have all passed away, but tlieir descendents 
are still among the best and most inHuenti'al 
residents of the town, whose growth and well- 
beinii" was aided and secured by their forefathers. 

In June, 1810, the rector of ('hrist Church, 
Rev. Charles Inglis, and the churchwardens, H. W. 
Scott and Sanuiel Albro, petitioned the govei-nor 
to have the grant of the lot on which they had 
buili the church, made out and completed. Which 
was -approved by Lord Daliiousie, th - go\ ernor of 
the province at that time. 

Dartmouth was now the {)ari,sli of Christ Church, 
but the rector had also charge of the parish of St. 



John's, Preston. Those were the only two stations 
for divine service, for several years. Afterwards 
the Eastern Passap' and Three-Fathom Harbonr 
were added to the charfje of the rectors of Dart- 
mouth. Mr. lufflis remained rector until 1825 ; 
when he removed to Sydney, C. B. Kev. E. B. 
Benwell, an En(,dishman, succeeded him. He only 
continued his ministrations for a short term.* 
The Re Mather Byles DesBrisay was the next 
incumhei. He was a son of Captain DesBrisay 
of the Ro\'al Artillery,^ and on his mother's side 
was a descendant of the celebrated Cotton Mather, 
and a f^randson of Dr. Byles wIkj at the time of 
the American reV)ellit)n, left his home in Boston, 
givin<jf up j)Osition and preferment to maintain his 
loyalty to his sovcivi<^ni. Flis faithful and uncom- 
promising spirit has been ti'ansmitted to his 
descendants, (jf whom a goodly numl>er remain 
amc^no- our most inHueutial country nicii. 

The Rev. Mathci- IJylcs Deslh-isay was a 
graduate of King's College, Wir.dsor. He was a 

*.\Ir. lii'invcU was rector foi' only 'Hio yi.'ur. Ho was suo- 
CCCmIlmI by Ml-. Pc.sHiisiy 'ii lS.'2S.—Ei.'. 

t Miuiied at St. .lohii. \. IV, 0:1 Mon.l.iy, tlie •.'■Jti.l nil., 
Tlioiiia.s Dr.sBrisiiy, Ks(|., I.itut. -Coloiiul of His Mdjcsiy'* lloyal 
Kcgiineiit of Artillt'iy, to NHsi Anna Uylcs, iliuiLlitcr of tlie 
KcvM. Dootor [Matlici] llylus, Rectoi' lif tlial (.'ity, and Cliapliin 
of Xi'W liruiiswick. (//c./ijar Janrrid!, 8tli Aii':iit<t, 1 V!H). )— A''/. 




young man of great promise. His sweetness of 
disposition endeared him to all who knew him, 
while his devotion to, and earnestness in his work, 
commanded the admiration and esteem of his peo le. 
His coiifTregation built a rectory for him near the 
First Dartmouth Lake. The house is pleasantly 
situated in a thick grove of native trees. It was 
retained as a rectory durinfj the incumbency of 
several clergymen ; but l)eing rather far from 
immediate parish work, it was sold to Col. Sinclair, 
a retired army officer, who with his family lived 
there for several years.* In l'^S2, a new rectory 
was built in the close neighbourhood of the church, 
which after being occupied by Rev. J. Bell, i^: again 
let until such time as tlie rector in charge may 
require it. 

.Ml-. DosBi'isay witli liis mother and I'l'otlier, lived 
in tlie original rt'otoiy ffoiii the time of his induction 
until liis death. The nicinhfrs of his family who 
live<l with hini. were both literary in theix- tastes 
and added t() tli^'ir cultivation anil varied knowledo-e 
tlie jiccouiplishmt'iit of being occasional writers of 
graceful vers*--. 

Mr. DesRi'isay's ministerial labours were extended 
from Dartmouth to the Eastern Passaige and Three- 

* It is now oecupie<l hy L. P. Fairljanks, Esq — Ed. 



Fathom Harbour, now Seaforth. The latter station 
being twenty-five miles from Halifax, was visited 
for service once every month, and more frequently 
in cases of illness or death. His labours were 
most warmly appreciated by the people under 
his charge, and few clergymen have been 
better loved or more deeply lamented than the 
young rector of Dartmouth, whose life of usefulness 
was cut short in his thirty-first year A heavy 
cold taken while in the discharge of his duty, resulted 
in illness so serious that nothing could be done to 
save a life of such value. He was only laid aside 
for a few days, when his death occurred at the 
rectory which he had made a refuge for the weary 
and a home for the sorrowful. 

The following is an article copied from the 
I\ova Scofian of the 13th Februarj', 18."4, said to 
have been written l)y his attached frien<l and 
fellow-student, the Rev. William Cogswell, then 
curate of St. Paul's, Halifax. The obituary is a 
touching tribute to bis purity of life and his 
earnestness in the work of liis Muster: — 

"Died, on Sunday, the 9th of February, 1S34, 
at the Dartmouth Rector}', in the 81st year of his 
ago, the Rev. Mather Ryles DesBrisay, A. M., Rector 
of Chuicb, Dartmouth, and missionarj'^ of 
the Society for tlie Pro]iagation of t)ie CJospel in 
Foreign Parts. In his private, as well as his minis- 

! ' I 



fcerial character, living he was equally beloved, dying 
he is equally deplored ! 

" The first year or two of his ministry was 
spent principally in visits to St. Margaret's Bay 
and other places which were without a resident 
clergyman ; and the afiection and gratitude with 
which the inhaViitants of every place in which he 
has, for however short a period, exercised his 
ministry, bear ample testimony to the kindness 
and humility of his demeanor, and his christian zeal 
for their spiritual welfare. 

" Since his settlement in Dartmouth, his labours 
in the cause of his Master have been arduous and 
incessant. Several pai'ts of his extensive mi.ssion, 
which had been rarely visite<l in former yeai-s or 
blessed with the ordinances of religion, were made 
by him the objects of his almost weekly care : and 
some of the yet more distant parts, which had boon 
accustomed to look only for a yoai'ly visit from 
a minister of Christ, were favoured with a regular 
monthly opportunity f)f hearing the word of Ood. 
The usual routine of Sunday duties which he had 
marked out for himself, obliged him to travel tiftoon 
hundred miles and hold upwards of one hundred 
and fifty full services within the year. Pnit his 
ex(3rtions were not limited to his Sunday duties. 
No call of duty, from whatever distance, found him 
either unwilling or unprepared to attend to it ; and 
it is scai'cely more than a month since he went and 
retm-ned a distance of twenty-fivo miles three times 
in (die week, to visit a sick man at Tliiee-Fathom 
Harbour, whose <leath called him a fourtli time, 
within a fVw davs, the same distance. 

" Xot\yithstanding such great e.veitions, which 
might almost seem to justify a degi-ee of self- 
C(jmplacency and satisfaction, such was his humility 
and fi-eedom from displiy, that none but his most 

cnuRcn uisTony. 

1 1 

• ed, dying 

' was 


U(]e with 
whicli lie 
3ised his 
tian zeal 

■; lal'ours 
lous and 
yoai-s or 
re made 
ire ; and 
'-id hoen 
'it fron) 


of Cod. 

ho had 



nt his 


h1 him 

t ; and 

»t and 

a thorn 





intimate friends were aware of the extent of his 
lalionj-s, and to them the exjiressions of his regret 
were that he was ahle to do so little. 

'' But while the chinch of which he was an 
ornament, has sustained such a loss, who can 
express the deep bereavement under which his 
mourriing family and afflicted friends are left to 
suti'ei" l>y his departure. To every one of his 
contemjiOi'aries at college, he was endeare.l hy 
ties than \Onch no brotherly attection could be 
stronger. The people of his charge feel like the 
smitten Egj'jitians, — as though in ever}' house there 
wa!^ one dead ! And his famil}' have to lament one 
whose ailection Wfis iinceasiiirj, whose kindness and 
attentions were unvarying, whose tempei- was 
uni-uffled, and whose disjiosition, jtartaking largely 
as it did of the milk of human kindness, was yet 
more deeply imbued witli the mild and softening 
influence of Christian sympatliy. Long and (lee])ly 
will his remembrance be cherished by his family, 
his bretliren, i'jul his friends. Loni; and enffei'lv 
will the church he adorned l(«)k for one so calculated 
to impress her doctrines, so enabled ])y God's grace 
to exemplify those doctrines in his life, so likely to 
have gained the esteem, the admii-ation, and the 
regard of all parties and denominations of Christians 
by his simplicity, his zeal, his humility, his purity, 
his talents, his devotion, and his singleness of 

" His remains were interred this afternoon, at two 
o'clock, beneath the altar in the Parish Church of 
Dartmouth, where his much respected Diocesan paid 
his last ti'ibute of respect to the character of a 
zealous missit)nary and devoted parish ]iriest, l)y 
committing his dust to its kindred dust, in the 
sure and cei'tain hoj)e of a glorious resurrection to 
eternal life." 



1 I ' I 

iiM!l , 


!i I 

Dr. Thomas B. DesBrisay, brother of the subject 
of the above notice, was for many years the leading 
physician in Dartmouth. His eldest son is Judge 
Mather Byles DesBrisay of Bridgewater, Lunenburg 
County, Nova Scotia. 

After the death of the Rev, M. B. DesBrisay, 
the parish was successively under the care of the 
following rectors : Rev. A. D. Parker, a son of the 
late Hon. Chief Justice Parker of Fredericton, 
N. B. ; Rev. George E. W. Morris,* son of the late and 
third Hon. Charles Morris, Surveyor General of the 
Province ; Rev. James Shreve, D. D. ; Rev. James 
Stewart; Rev. Ferdinand Pryor; Rev. J. B. Richard- 
son ; Rev. John Bell, an Englishman who came to 
Nova Scotia under the auspices of tlio Ci)lonial 
and Continental Church Society ; and the Rev. 
Nicholas Raven, also an Englishman, who took 
charge about Easter, 1886.f 

The parish of Dartmouth is one of the best in 
the province. The church has a large number of 
members in ihe township and good congregations 
attend all the services at the various stations. J 


* Mr. Morris studied and was ordained in England in 1821. 

t Mr. Raven was succeeded in September, 1888, by the 
Rev. Then as C. Mellor, the present [189.S] rector. — iiV. 

X According to the census of 1891, tiiere were 2,123 adherents 
of the Church of Enifland in the town of Dartmouth.— ^(/. 


1' ! 



of the best in 

England in 1821. 

During the period when the Nantucket whalers 
and their families were settled in Dartmouth, a plot 
of land on Block-House Hill was set apart as a 
burying groun<l. For a long time it was called the 
Quaker Cemetery, and all protestant members of 
the community were buried there. Soon after the 
building of Christ Church, which stands below the 
slope of the hill, a portion of this bi rying-ground 
was set apart for the use of the members of the 
Church of England, and it is there they still bury 
their dead. 

Some twenty years ago, another portion of 
ground to the north-west of the Block-House 
Churchyard, was set apart for a cemetery. Here 
members of all other denominations are interred. 

The Roman Catholic Chapel of St, Peter at the 
eastern corner of Ochterloney and Prince Edward 
Streets wa^ built about the year 1820 or 1830.* 
There is a tradition that this church was the old 
one which formerly stood where St. Mary's is now 
situated in Halifax, and that it was ro-erected in 
Dartmouth. Neither the Archbishop nor Father 
Underwood, who is now in charge of the district, 

•The following accounts of the Roman Catholic, Presbyterian, 
Baptist, and Methodist Chuiches, have beeninserted by the editor, 
as they had not been mentioned by the autiior save in a single 
sentence. — Ed. 

•A '< 

\ I I ! ; I 




; I! 

'■| : 

I r 

iNlj! I 

WWl^i i' 

,M j ( 



! ! 

'ia« l»een ahJe to verifv fi • \ " 

'^eon asee.tHine.,, ho. .:^ /; ^^ ,.. 

Jl'e hrst l,,|i „f ,s, , 
'o St. A„,l,.c.„-s Cl,.„. ■ ""-*'■ "'"^ """■'=■1 

'■'■ '---"* «:i;:;:;;,;:.;;r:*' • 

M"ple Street „■.,. , '^"''' '^ '^'"'P"!, on 

"- '"' of Feb,.„,„.;", ;,r ;»■"■•«' - on Sunday, 
h.^ cai-e of St. An, ,-eVr PI, , '"'"•'" '" ''""'ff*' 
P"-%-. a„,i ,,e ,.,s„ 1 t ' "' "'"' '="■''-• 
"J Pr-ton. but there a r„ , ""',' '^""'^ ^''™^J 
P'"-. Accorain., 7 °''t'» ■''*'- '-last 

' ''' ""^ to"'" of Dartn.outh 




It has 
oM church 
•asolved to 
<;l buildniL'' 
k' i^arts of 

juth, was 
vas moved 
, whore it 
it this old 
ohaltly ill 

it to 1)6 

tion could 



a larger, 

apel, on 

the fall 





two last 

I'e were 


From a register of hirths and deatiis, beginning 
in 1830, is nuule the following list of the priests 
who have officiateil at St. Peter's, named in the 
order in which they occur: James Dunphy, Dennis 
Geary, James Kennedy, William McLeod, Patrick 
Phelan, James and Pati'ick Dunphy (these two 
names are intermixed, the latter may have been 
merely a curate), Dennis Geary, Alexander Mclsaac, 
Canon Woods, and the present incumbent, Charles 
Underwood. From this it will be seen that James 
Dunphy and D. Geary officiated twice. 

The old Roman Catholic Burying-ground is 
situated at the northern end of the town, between 
Geary Street and Windmill Road. It is now in a 
ruinous state. The sod is becoming covered by 
golden-rod and blueberry bushes, and in some parts 
alders are springing up and will soon overrun the 
whole place. It contains about a couple of dozen 
grave-stones with inscripticms. Other graves, of 
whicli there are a good many, are merely indicated 
by rough bits of slate or whin, while the remainder 
have no marks save the uneven turf. In this 
desolate spot lies one who, trail i tion says, was a near 
relative of an empress, and yet no inscription telLs 
her name, nor can anyone pinnt out the grave in 
which she sleeps at peace from a life of bitterness. 
The oldest inscription in the grave-yard is dated 




1882, which was a couple of years after the huiMinf:^ 
of St. I'eter's Chapel. In one part of the jri'onnd 
is a larire stone vault, banked with earth. By an 
Act, passe<l in IS.j!), the trustees of the Dartmouth 
Common were instructed to set oti' a new Roman 
Catholic Ceniotery, adjoiniiij,' tlu; Puhlic Burial- 
grt)und on the Cijunnon, northward of Block-house 
Hill. There the members of the church now inter 
their dead. 

The arrival in 1827 of some forty Scotch stone- 
cutters and masons, with their families (see pai^^e 32), 
doubtless brought a number of Pivsbyterians into 
the town of Dartmouth. These, to<,'ether with 
such others as ha<l previously been inhabitants 
of the place, soon desired to unite for worship. 
About January, 1829, Peter McNab, Es(i., and 
other adherents of the Presbyterian Church wdio 
were residents of Dartmouth, coml)ined by deed to 
form " the Conrjregation of the Church of St. James 
in Dartmouth."* On the 24tli January and 1st 
November of the previous year, they, through their 
trustee, John Farnuharson, had obtained two lots of 
land, one from Peter Donaldson and the other from 
Andrew Malcom. These lots were bounded on 
three sides by King, North, and Wentworth Streets, 

* James Morrison was the Presbyterian Minister then in 
charge at Dartmouth, 

(Ilium msiouY. 


Ry all 



\v inter 

I stone- 

a<,'e 32), 

ms into 

!!• with 


vers 111 p. 


h who 

leed to 


lud 1st 

I their 

ots of 


ed on 


[hen in 

and on the fourth side hy the line separating' them 
from other lots to the sonthwnrd. A cliureh was 
hiiilt near the eastern corner of Kiiif^ and North 
Streets, and there the eoni,n-ei,'ation worshiiipeij for 
main' j'ears. Ahont iSd.S it was j)ro|)osed to sell 
the old lots and to purchase another jiiect; of land 
on which to eiect a new church, and an act was 
accordiiiLdv iiassed hy the leifislaturc in that yi'ar 
to cnahle the sale t(» he made. The memhers (»f 
the congregation also desired to reconstruct the 
body and revise the old rules. A new dvvi\ of 
constitution was therefore drawn up and dated 
the 21st March, INTO. It was atlopted at a meetintif 
held on 11th April, which was the last one 
under the old deed of constitution. On 8rd ^hly, 
a piece of laml, formerly lielonging to the Harts- 
liorne estate, at the junction of Portland Street 
with the Cole Harbour or Eastern Passflfre Road, 
was purchased from Robert Waddell for 84,(532, and 
a new cliurch was soon commenced. While excava- 
tions for the foundation were being made, a number 
of human skeletons were exhumed. The i)1ace had 
evidently at one time been used as a cemetery, 
but whether by Indians, French, or old settlers, is 
not known. One calm summer's <lay, the framework 
of the church collapsed, and it had to be re-erected. 
This occasioned some delay, but by the l7th 



^^ :<^4p 





Hi fW ||2^ 

" ■— 112,2 

.^' lis 







WEBSTER, NY. 14580 

(716) 873-4503 


















January, 1871, the buildinrf had heen completed. 
It was opened for worship on Sunday, 29th 
January, and the pews were assigned to the con- 
gregation on the following Tuesday. The total 
cost of the building, including heating and lighting 
apparatus, together with the cost of grading the 
plot and erecting a fence and wall, was about 
SI 3,701). Recently, the steeple of the church was 
taken down, owing to its probable insecurity. In 
1870 the salary of the pastor was S700, but by 
1874 it had been raised to SI, 200. About 1888 
Dawson Street Church came under the charge of 
the congregation. It was formerly situated near 
the Ropewalk. Services are also held near the 
Woodsid"! Refinery. 

The records of the church up to 1870, are 
apparently lost, but the following list includes 
most of the reverend gentlemen who have con- 
ducted the services : James Morrison, Alexander 
Romans, A. W. McKay (al)out 1855), William 
Murray (about 185G), Dr. McKnight (1857 until 
about 18(58), Alexander Falconer who officiated 
for eight or ten years, Peter M. Morrison, in 
charge for about the same length of time, John L. 
George who only remained a few years, and the 
present pastor, Thomas Stewart. It was during 
Mr. Falconer's time that the new church of SK 



James was built. The congregtition now bury 
tlieir dead in the Public Cemetery, but formerly 
they doubtless used the Church of England 
Burying- ground, which, some sa^', was never conse- 
crated. In 1891 there were 1,042 Presbyterians 
in the town of Dartmouth. 

The organization now known as the Dartmouth 
Baptist Church was brought into existence on the 
29th of October, l8iS. From a record made at 
the time, we learn that Elder Knox, of Halifax, 
after statin/^ the duties of church members to 
each other and to the world, read the letters of 
dismissal and gave the right hand of fellowship 
to seven members. The church thus organized, 
then received into its fellowship four others. 
During the first year of its existence the congrega- 
tion met for worship in a hired room. In 
September of the year following, a new meeting- 
house which had been built by subscription, was 
opened by Brother A. S. Hunt and Elder John 
Masters, of New Brunswick. The site of the 
" New Meeting House," as it was called, is identical 
with that whereon the present church now stands, — 
namely on King Street. The original structure 
was removed a little to the rear of the present 
building, and is now used as a vestry, a memorial of 
the zeal of those who now rest from their lalK)urs. 


15 lillllf^f 








T'»e first pasfor nf *i • l ^ 

ALmh,.,,, a Hunt H " ™-' "" '•"« ««-• 
"for tl,c. dedication "ni^T'T '"""""' ^''-"^ 
»t Dartmouth „„ Sn„ I .f '"'• "'"' '*'' Pl««« 

"f 'ho oldo. «,,,«;;; ;; ■' '7"-' very „.„y 

opened f„,. hi,„ „„,, , • ^ ''"'«■■ fiel'l soon 

Baptist Cl,u..c „rl "n""""' " """ '-" «•« 

■■■•»'or,ort.,eeC':;':'^:^^'-"'^. ^"^ 

deimrture until hi, ', " '""^ <"' "'•• Hunts 

"-e „n„ee in „„,;„ ^ ."'^^ '' — " '" 
planted in faith w/^^ .1 .• , ^ "^ ''^e'^, however. 

'■-"wni.r/,:;':'::--- "^- «-"'••' 

■' f"v „,„„,„, ,^,^; '"^ f »'-S0. but resided 
Spenee, then .. ^nU^ *'" ''^''- "™-^ A. 

J- iiio ministry of Hi;<= xi 

ff'-eatly Messed, «n,I the d „ ' , '''""""'"' "--^^ 

in ".enibership and to ! *^" ^ '"""'^ 

ip and to gather strencrth «„.,„„• „ 
The present church on Kin„ S. ". '"'•■ncally, 

«..'l opened f„r ,vorshi,, T" ■ ?' "™ '»^™ 

"-,, of ll l ' '''"" ^n 

EJward J. Gran 1 ' ' "' '" '*'*'■ "'« «-• 
"' '-came nn'nister, continuing so 


CHuncH iiisTonv. 


late Rev. 
'fl shortly 
>ok place 

life and 
fy many 
•• Hunt's 
iJ<I soon 
com the 
V. The 

orate in 
smed to 

ss. In 
ry A. 





for a period of nearly ten years. Subsequent 
incumbents, mentioned in their order, were, the 
Revs. C. W. Williams and W. M. Smallman. The 
Rev. S. B. Kempton now presides over the church 
Prior to his present connection he served as pastor 
of the Baptist Church at Cornwallis for over a 
quarter of a century.* 

" For some years," writes the Rev. T. W. Smith ,f 
" the few Methodists of the place [Dartmouth], who 
had looked up to the faithful Nathaniel Russell 
as leader, had heard occasional sermons on that 
side of the harbour in a school-house X \ ^^^ i^ 
1847, when the Sunday afternoon sermons in the 
city Methodist churches had been finally abandoned, 
the hour thus placed at the minister's disposal was 
given to them." A church was accordingly dedicated 
in 1853. " In the erection of the cliurch," continues 
Mr. Smith, " a deep practical interest was taken by 
George H. Starr and G. C. M. Roberts, M. D., a 

g so 

* The eilitnr is indebted to the vestry-clerk for the iuforina- 
tioii contained in this paragraph. 

tVide fitKlory of MethotlUt Church ivithin Eastern Britixh 
Amtrica, vol II (Halifax, 1S9()), p. 321. 

X Mr. Smith says, that " During the winter of 1785-6, 
Freeborn Garrettson preached several times at Dartmouth, where 
the people offered to build a preaching-house, if regular services 
coulil be guaranted. Garrettson then had charge of the extensive 
Halifax circuit." (Vide History of Mi'tfiodixl Church in Emtcni 
B. N. A , vol. I (Halifax, 1877), p. 163. 


t; n 


local preacher of R..i*- " 

a ™n«ter were giv„„ that ,•„ ,« 'a 7""^ "' 
"' ""> town app«„,j ^, " 'S-8 the „„„« 

«'""^'.. which ha, since be" ," "'"""'" '"'' 
"•e corner of Ochterio e„td K 'f ^""'"^ ™ 
-"-of the .ini^rr: ce T«-f ^'•.^- '"'<> 
ehronologic.,1 o„ler, are a« fill ' ' ^"'"' ''" 

-"d — Stewart dZJ h "'■ "^^ '^- ^'"'--^ 
H-kiahMcKe„w„ ":'";!*""'*''■»''-••"""). 

P""ne. .„h„ L:tc::;r:7, ^"'■" «• 

A..sw,n, Howan, Hpragu. J T p''""'"^' •'• 0- 
Paisley, A. W. Nicolson i' ■, *'""■'• C^- H- 

TO-'ow. G,.,frey swe"' /;^"' ' ,«■ ^"^-in, J. £ 

J- L Sponacfie W c R "'■'''■ "• ''• ""-""o. 

the present mi„i,te,, D W T . "'""' '^"^ 

*« the census of 189J „ "''^"- According 

in the town ' "^''' ^^''^ «^5 MethoUiste 







THE Township of Dartmouth exteiuls along the 
shore al)Out nine miles through a pretty strip 
of country called the Eastern Passage. The 
land is beautifully situated on the border of 
the harbour. In many of its warm and sheltuied 
spots, carefully cultivated and enriched V)y the 
thrifty farmers and their wives, spring vegetables, 
Ruch as rhubarb, lettuce, radishes and greens, are 
grown and brought to Halifa.K very early in the 

Near the terminus of the road which runs 
through this part of the township, is a beautiful 
inlet of the sea called Cow Bay. It has a 
delightful beach on which the great waves rush 
in and recede with a grand and musical swell. 
Some good farm-houses in the neighbourhood of 
this bay, have accommodation for visitors ; and 
the place is now a favourite summer resort, not 
only for picnic parties, but alscj for those who 


.i' ■ 





enjoy a few days or weeks by tlie sea. Here 
bathiiifj, and fresh, bracing air are always to be 
had, with quiet and comfortable lodging. It is a 
spot where Nature with her fairest and sweetest 
attractions is always to be found. Cow Bay Run is 
a charming little river. Indeed, many spots in the 
vicinity seem pleasure grounds of Nature, made for 
the relaxation and enjoyment of man. 

The Eastern Passage lands were chiefly settled 
by Germans. The fine farms in the district are the 
result of their careful toil. In each of the little 
coves are families of fishermen, and these in the 
earliest years of the settlement supplied the Halifax 
market with fish. 

In 1754, the president of the council at Halifax 
received orders from the British government to 
build a battery on the Dartmouth side of the 
harbour, near the Eastern Passage Road. This was 
completed in the same year, and is now known as 
Fort Clarence.* Eight guns were at first mounted. 
A very small garrison has occupied the fort ever 

* The following note relates to Fort Clarence : " New Battery 
has lately been begun — likewise not finished. It stands on a 
rising ground about two miles east across the Harbour from 
Halifax. This is to prevent shipping entering the Harbour under 
the Eastern shore without reach of George's Island." (Sekclions 
from Public Documtntu of N. S. .• Hemarks relative to Ittlurn 
of Forces in Xova Scotia, 30th March, 1755.)— Ed. 



since. It is nbout two miles south-eHst of 

At one time the summer camping ground of 
the soldiers of the Halifax garri.son was situated 
on the waterside of the P^astern Passage Road ; 
the white tents .surmounted hy the union-jack, 
and the brilliant uniforms of the men, making it 
a miniature Aldershot. The camp was a greot 
attraction to strangers, and consecjuently the 
Eastern Passage Road was a favourite drive in 
the pleasant days of sunnner. Target practice 
and other military exercises filled up the few 
weeks during which the men remained under 
canvas. Many a jaded soldier regained health 
and strength on the green slopes, fanne<i by the 
fresh sea breezes sweeping over this plea.sant 
holiday ground. 

After being used for two or three seasons, the 
grounds were discarded by the military. Fortifica- 
tions were commenced on McNab's Island, and 
the camping place was removed to the more 
suitable and extensive enclosure belonging to the 
government on that island. 

Most of the road from Fort Clarence to 
Dartmouth is so picturesque and beautiful, that 
its many attractive situations have been chosen 
for the erection of pretty cottages and more 
imposing resi<lences. 




11 ■ -■« 

More than fifty yeurN a^o, the Hon. John E. 
Fairbanks purchased a sito on the Eastern PaHsa^^e 
Koa<l, slopinpf down to the water's edt^e. Hero ho 
built a pretty cotta^^e in which lie and his family 
lived for many years. The grounds were laid out 
with nmcli taste and a fr(MM\ deal of ornamentation. 
Extended walks were made, and planted on each 
side with shade trees an«l shrubs. A larpe garden 
on the southern side of the house was tastefully 
planned and filled with fruit trees and fiowers. In 
those early days of provincial floriculture, this 
was one of the first places in Dartmouth in 
which taste and ornament lurf^ely predominated, 
" Woodside," as it wjvs called, was always a most 
delitjhtful summer resort, and visitors came to 
admire the beauty of the situation and its 
picturesque surroundings. Fi'om the verandah, 
trellised with vines, the harbour and city beyond 
filled the scene, the nois}' din of the latter stealing 
across the water, only makin*^ the pleasant idleness 
of the quiet country home more deli<^htful. There 
are many who still remember with pleasure and 
aft'ection the beautiful grounds of " Woodside," 
and the courtesy and kindness of its hospitable 
owners. After Mr. Fairbanks's death, the pi-operty 
was purcluised in March, 18G), by George Gordon 
Dustan, Esq., a gentleman who came to Nova 




Scotia from Scntlaml in June, 1863. The Wixxlside 
Supw Ht'Hnt'ry was aftorwnnla crecto*! on the 




he (h 


lam I. ihis nmnutiictory will i>e (lescnhed in a 
sulis((|uent chajttcf. 

The projuM'ty adjoining Woodslde, also fronting 
the water, had a vahiahh; hriek-yard and kilns for 
t!»e mamifaeure of lime. They A'ere first owned 
and hron<,'ht into working order hy the late Santncl 
I'rescott, Ks(|. At his di-ath, after passinff through 
several hands, the proj)erty was purchased l»y 
J{enry Yeomans Mott, Eh<].* Here this jjentlenian 
resided with his family for many years, and not 
only carried on the makinf; of hricks on a larfje 
scaile, hut also erected huildiiifjs for the manufacture 
of chocolate and cocoa, and a mill for p-indinj^ 
spices, etc. Mr. Mott had a numher of persons 
employed in the ditlerent dejiartments of lii.s 
establishment, and did a lar^e business up to the 
time of his death on 81st January, 1800. He was 
u mai^istrate for more than a quarter of a century, 
and repre.'^ented the county of Halifax in the 
provincial assembly for four years. He was the 
father of John Pre.scott Mott, E.s(|., one of the 
wealthiest manufacturers and merchants in the 

* See the particulars of the Mott family, given iti the 
Bucceeding history of the towiit-hip of Preston. — Ed. 








■-^' • 




provinofv Tim property is still possiissed 1»y Mr. 
Mott's fiiinily, iin<l was usod for tho carrying on 
of iniuiufiicturcs for hoiik! years. Of lati', the 
factories have heeii closed ; ami th(5 luick-yard 
is HeMoin, if ever, in operation. 

Another briek-yanl was situated at the Kastern 
I*assni,'e, about a mile ami a ipiarter south of Fort 
Clarence. It was started and worked by Messrs. 
Peters and Blacklock, builders. ff»"itletnen 
had the contract for the erection of the Wellin^jton 
Barracks at ifalifax, and all the bricks used in 
that structure were made at their own brickyard. 
It was afterwards carried on by William Hare, Esq. 
and gave employment to a larj^e company of 
workmen. Of late years it has been partially«l, owing probably to the small <k'mand for 
building materials in Halifax. N«^ar the brick-yard 
there were good pottery works iDelonging to Mr. 
Hornsby. At present, however, the establishment 
is clcsed. 

Adjoining the late Mr. Henry Y. Mott's projjerty, 
is Mount Hope, the asylum and hospital for the 
insane. The building was erected between 1856 
and 1858,* and immediately occupied; the patients 

* About 1845, a commission was appointed by Lord Falkland 
to make inciuiries in the United States relative to tiie management 
of hospitals for the insane. The detailed report of this uom- 




Itt'iii^ uinlor the caro of Dr. Jamos R. DeWolfe, 
The situation of tins institution is vory Hue. It 
connnands a ^'oo<l view of tlio harl»<»ur nn<i city 
of Halifax, and of niihs of country. Tlu* ^'naiiuKs 
are tastefully lai<I out and kept In -excellent order. 
The building' is of liritk, with extensive wind's. 
It is a Itrilliant olject from Halifax when the 
settin^^ sun falls on its many win*lows and Hoods 
thenj with a resplendent ^dory. 1'he Asylum is 
now under the char^je of Drs. Keid * and Sinclair. 

The interior of the liuildin^ is l)rij^ht, airy and 
comfortalile. Its lai-^e halls and many warils aro 

mifmidii ih in tlio JouiimU of Asgiinhly for IS40. In tlie sesMion 
of that yetir, a conmiitti-u rfconiniuntUil an annuul grant for Hve 
years for purcliiising tlie nt'ceHHiiry grounds and erecting and 
furniKliing bul-Ii liuildings ax n)iglit be required for an aoyluni. 
From that time, private (lunations an<l legiahitivc grants wero 
bestowed. Tlio corner-st'iue of tiie building Mas laid with 
masonic honours on Monday, 0th June, 18*)(i. In the first report 
of the commissioners of the Hospital, which appears in the 
Assembly Journals of 18.')0 (Appendix 10), this date is erroneously 
given as 8th of Juno. On Friday night or Saturday morning, 
following the day of the ceremony, some persons capsi/.ed the 
corner-stono and stole the coins, etc., which had been deposited 
therein. The hospital was principally built of bricks which were 
made on the place — probably at the brick-yard on the old Mott 
property just to the south. On Ist December, 18.')8, the executive 
officers of the institution took possession of their quarters, and 
it was announced that the building would be ready for the recep- 
tion of patients on the Ist of January, 1859. — Ed. 

•Ur. Reid is now (1893) superintendent of the Victoria 
General Hospital. — Ed, 



, i; I 



kept in faultless order, and as much as possible 
is done in order to alleviate the distress and restore 
to sanity the painfully large number of its unhappy 

From the Asylum grounds, on the water side 
of this road, to Dartmouth Cove and beyond, are 
a number of handsome houses with their grounds 
well cultivated and set about with luxuriant trees. 
Among the owners of this portion of Dartmouth, 
are George Troop, Esq., A. E. Ellis, Esc(., Hon. Dr. 
Parker, John P. Mott, Esq., and Judge James. 

As has- been before mentioned on paye 44, 
the wharf fronting Dr. Parker's property' and 
at the foot of the old Ferry Road, is the site 
of Creighton's or the Lower Ferry landing.* 

When the adjoining property was first put 
under cultivation, a number of small cannon balls 
and large shot were thrown out by the plough. 
They were probably scattered tiiere by some of 
the French sailors who occasionally anchored their 
ships of war in the harbour near ])artmouth, 
when our province was owned by France and 
known by the name of Acadia. -f* 


* This ferry is marked on a military plan of Halifax and its 
vicinity, made hy John G. Toler, U. R, in 1808.— *;</. 

fl have been informed by an oM inha1)itant, Mr. George 
Shiels, that about sixty years ago there wa'j a small island, which 
bas since disappeared, near the shore just north of Mott's wharf 



Dr. Parker has a Imndsoine house and grounds 
with a tine grove of hardwood trees near the 
southern side. 

Mr. Mott has an excellent waterside property, 
with large substantial house and attractive gi'ounds 
Winding walks cut through the woodland, give a 
charming variety to the place, so full are they of 
pleasant surprises : now opening on a garden of 
roses, now leading to a gay partei-re of flowers, 
or disclosing at the next turn a great rhododendron, 
covered with bloom, with other graceful and 
fragrant shrubs. All the grounds are kept in 
perfect order, and charm the eye with their variety 
and beauty. Fronting the water near the Cove, 
Mr. Mott has a number of factories and store- 
houses, where he carries on the manufactuie of 
chocolate and other preparations of that bever- 
age. He has also a mill for grinding pepper 
and other spices, and a press-house where these 
condiments aie packed for the market. Mr. Mott 
opened his manufactories in tliis place about 18.53, 

in tlie Cove. It was then disappearing under the action of the 
sea, and in the falling bank couUl he seen numerous wooden coffins 
containing skeletons. Mr. Sliiels rcneinhers seeing them when 
a loy. lie says that some of the French were buried tliere. If 
so, they may have been either d'Anville's men or the prisoners who 
liave been mentioned on page 01. I have not found tills island on 
«ny of the old plans of Dartmouth. — Ed, 





and has since done a very large business in the 
various branches of his trade. The works employ 
about thirty labourers all the year round. Much 
property on both sides of the highway is owned 
by the proprietor, on which are a number of houses 
occupied by the workmen and their families* 

The upper side of the Eastern Passage Road 
is perhaps the most to be admired, owing to its 
commanding view of the harbour and the country 
in the distance. Most charming landscapes can 
be seen from many of its hills, all fronted by 
the broad and ever- beautiful sea, where ships and 
steamers, ami smaller vessels of every description, 
are constantly passing to and fro. 

The undulating beauty of the land ; the green 
islands in the channel ; Halifax rising up from 
the water's edge to the slope of the Citadel 
above, its flag and cannons a constant reminder 
that we are under the protection of grand old 
England and her gracious queen : all these give 
a picturesque beauty and charm to the view from 
this part of Dartmouth, which cannot be surpassed 
in any other portion of the province. 

Between the Cole Harbour and Eastern Passage 
Roads, and alongside of the old ferry road leading 

•Mr. Mott's death occurred on 12th February, 1890, since 
Mrd. Lawaoii wrote this history. — Ed, 



from the Cove, stands " Mount Amelia." The house 
was built about 1840 by the late Hon. James 
William Johnstone, judge-in-equity for the province 
of Nova Scotia. The situation of this pnoperty 
is very beautiful, and from it may be obtained 
an extensive view of the country, stretching for 
miles over the township. When the grounds 
were under cultivation and in good order, this 
was a most deliirhtful summer residence. Judge 
Johnstone was very much attached to his pleasant 
country house, and under his care the shubbery 
and garden were perfect in their way. He 
died in England, in November, 1873. Owing to 
the vicissitudes of change and time, the house 
and grounds now much need repair, but the site 
and surroundings are even more beautiful than 
ever. The luxuriant foliage of the deep groves 
of trees, dyed with tender tints of varying 
green in June, or Hushed with the crimson and 
orange glory of October, make a picture of loveli- 
ness at th^^se especial seasons that cannot readily 
be etfucffl from the menjory. 

In 18G(), a company composed of three gentlemen 
was formed, with the intontiim of purchasing a 
certain amount of property to be laid out and 
formed into a park. Tlie object of this association 
was the improvement of Dartmouth and pecuniary 

f- •' 




advantafo to themselves. In accordance with this 
view, several acres * were purchased from the 
property belonging to Judge Johnstone, on the 
upper (western) side of the Eastern Passage Road. 
The land was thickly covered with fine hard-wood, 
and had all the natural ailvantages necessary for 
carrying out the plan effectually. Several carriage 
roads were cut through it, each presenting difFoi-ent 
views, and Imilding lots attached. The idea was 
to erect houses of various sizes and styles on 
these lots, either for purchasers or tenants. The 
whole was to be incorporated under the name of 
" Prince Arthur's Park."t The late John Esdaile, 
Esq., built the first residence. He was a retired 
Montreal morchant who had chosen Dartmouth 
for his home ami who wished to devote his leisure 
and money to its improvement. He lived for 
some years in the first house which he built in 
the Park It is now owned and occupied by 
Benjamin Russell, Esq. Another pretty villa was 
built by Mr. Esdaile, and is now owned by Mr. 
Frazee. After its incorporation, the other members 

*One hundred and six acres are named as the quantity of 
land, i'l the act of incorporation.— &^ 

t In 1870 an act was pvssed to iniorporate the Proprietors of 
Prince Arthur's Park, namely, liennett II. Horusby, .Tohn Esdaile, 

■ 1 McNeil Parker, James W. .Tohnstone, J. Norman Ritchie, 
u C. Cogswell, Frederick Fishwick, an'l sucli others as 
.mght afterwards bo added. — Ed. 




of the company did not build as they had at lirst 
agreed to do. The roads have not heen kept 
in order, and several of the lots purchased are 
now used as pasture land. On the slope of the 
hill, A. C. Cof^swell, Es(|., has a handsome house an<l 
grounds. Adjoining his property, is a pretty cottage 
and garden owned hy Mr. Stewart. Further soutli 
is another house. All those are within the Park. 
Had the original intention of the company been 
carried out, Prince Arthur's Park would have been 
a great ornamop* to the town of Dartmouth. 

Al>ove " ...t Amelia," on the old Preston 
Road, is Maynard's Lake. This is a beautiful 
sheet of water closely Viordered with drooping 
trees. It is said to contain a warm spring, and no 
matter how thick the ice may be in other ])]aces, 
crossing it is apparently dangerous in winter. 

To the eastward, looking down upon the lake, 
stands "Manor Hill." It is now the residence of 
W. S. S^nnonds, Esij , but was built and occupied 
for several years by Mr. Anrlrew Shiels, well known 
to the people of Dartmouth by the title he bestowed 
upon himself, " The Bard of Ellen vale." This title 
was derived from the property and lu)use he had 
purchased and built in a jileasant valley nearly 
a mile nearer Preston, ami to which he had given 
the name of " Ellenvale," in compliment to his 

*! \ 





wife. Mr. Sliiels was a Scotchman, and a black- 
smith by trade. Like his groat country man, 
Robert Burns, ho loved the " divine art," and 
employed his leisure in writing versos. These, 
above the pseudonym " Albyn," were published 
almost weekly in the Nova Scotian newspapers. 
Mr. Shiels attempted to copy Burns in style an«l 
sentiment, but unfortunately was without the 
delicate perception and tender inspiration of Nature 
which made his protot3'pe a true poet. Still there 
is often a touch of the genuine afflatus in Albyn's 
rugged rhyme. A sketch of Dartmouth would be 
incomplete without a reference to the hard-featured, 
honest Scotchman who lielievod himself to be a 
poet, and who brighteneil his daily toil by com- 
munion with the spirit of song, his droppings of 
rhyme beating a measure to the blows on his 
anvil. He died .some years ago, and was buried 
in Woodlawn Cemetery, anifmir the dead whoso 
epitaphs were often furnished by his pen * 

* His gravestone contains the following inscription: "In 
memory | of | Andrew .Shiels | Born | in the Parish of | Oxnam, 
Ro\hur;^hslnre, | Scotland, ] March 12th, ITfl.S, | Died at Dart- 
mouth, N. S I Novr. 5th, 1879, | In the S7[th] year ] of his age. | 

Epitaph : 

Within this little mound, 

I^et Alhjn's dust remain 
'Tili the Archangel's trumpet-sound 

Walte him to life iii;.i'n. 
No overweeini; pride 

This m.'irblo sLtb invcits, 
But a'* n landmark it niiv KuiJo 

Xo where the poet reita." 



a black - 
,rt," and 
stylo and 
lout the 
)f Nature 
;till there 
1 Albyn's 
would be 
■ to l>e a 

by coui- 
ppings of 
on his 
as buried 

id whose 
!n * 

ptioii : "In 
of 1 Oxnain, 
>if(l at Dart- 
of Ilia age. | 

The road which winds aloiif^, above the shore 
on the western extension of Dartmouth, is known 
as the Windujill Road : so called from the ancient 
landmark which has so lon^ stood in that portion 
of the town. This windmill was built more than 
sixty years af^o,* and was used as a ^i-ist-mill for 
a long perio<l. It has now fallen into decay ; the 
sails have been removed, and tiie venerable structure 
is allowed to rest from its labours. The Albro 
property, Turtle Grove, Tufts Cove and other points 
of interest, are to be found in this locality. The 
Oland Brewerj' ^^ituated near Turtle Grove. This 
part of Dartmouth has alwaj's been a favourable 
place for picnics and other summer pleasures. 

The road leads past the Narrows and aloiif^ the 
eastern side of Bedford Basin until it terminates 
at the village of Bedford on the Windsor Road. 

The township of Dartmouth also extends in 
another direction, up the old Truro Post Road, 
past the Dartmouth Lakes, on beyond "Red Bridge," 
along Lake Charles and bv the house once known 
as Marshall's Hotel.-j- This house, some twenty 

* A note, floubtles? in tlie hanchvrititig of Dr. Akins, says 
that it was standing in 1.S'20. — Ed. 

tTliis place was also calleil the Poitobello House. It was 
on the west side c f the road, about six miles from Dartmouth. 
Some years ngo, it was burnt to the ground. — Ed. 






years am), was a favonrito resort, and <lriviti«^ 
parties, slei<,'hln<^ ami otherwise, often took advan- 
tajjo of its comfortable rest. 

In tliis direction we find the district known as 
Waverley.* This vilhifje is the fi;ro\vth of the hist 
twenty-five years, and was called into existence 
by the <liscovery of fjold in its vicinity. It is 
separated into two parts Ity Lakes William and 
Thomas, and is thus known as the eastern and 
western divisions. It was first broui^ht into public 
notice in 18(51 by the discovery of j:(old. Like all 
land near the shore of Nova Scotia, the soil is 
poor and very rocky, and for generations it was 
left almost undisturbed by man, none imafjinin<]f 
that among these rouj;h masses of " barrel quartz," 
the precious metal was hidden. 

The first discovery of gold was made public 
by Alexander Taylor on the 28r(l August, liSGl. 
He found the metal in the west division, on the 
eastern edge of Muddy Pond, on the Waverley farm 
of the late Charles P. Allen who for many years 

• Waverley ia not in the township of Dartmouth, and therefore 
its history is irrelevant to the suhject here treated. As the sketch, 
however, contains information which m.-vy be useful, I have allowed 
it to stand as written by Mrs. Lawson. " Waverley " was the 
name given by Mr. Charles P. Allen to the house which is now 
occupied by Mr. B. C. Wilson, and the designation was afterwards 
applied to the village wliich sprang up about it. Allen was a 
great admirer of Scott's famous novel. — Ed, 





tiown as 

the last 


It is 

lain and 

orn and 

o public 

Like all 

soil is 

s it was 



on tiie 
'y farm 
y ytiars 

e sketch, 
e ftlloweil 
' was the 
eh is now 
len was a 

had a l»uckc't-niakiri<' nmnnfactorv in the neiirh- 

bourhocxl. Tlie sjn'ciniens olitaiiied in two days' 

search, broken from surface boulders, were sold 
in Halifax for eiffhty dollars.* 

Gold was discovered on the eastern side by 
James Skerry, on the 14th September, IHOI. He 
found it on the hif^di rid<,'e of land on the eastern 
side of the ])ost-road leadinfj to 'i'ruro, and within 
three-quarters of a mile of the place where the 
previous discov(.'ry was made in the western division. 

These mines have lieen the scene of a ^reat 
deal of labour and much expenditure of money. 
A very large area has been mined, and a settlement 
has grown up around it : but the returns have not 
satisfied the purchasers of claims who began work 
with such large anticipations of proHt twenty-five 
years ago. The total yiehl of gold from ISGl 
to 1885, was fifty-three thousand and twenty-nine 
ounces, sixteen penny-weights, and four grains. This 
is the result of six hundred and six thousand, si.K 
hundred and forty-three days labour. The yield 
has decrea'^eil very much since 1870, and seekers 
for gold are now exploring in other <lirections. 

* See Samuel Creelman's report on Nova Scotia (ioUl Fields, 
Appendix No G, Journals of Assembly, N. S. , 1SG3, wiiich contains 
much other information regarding the place. — Ed. 




The ro;i<l on tlio western sidi' of the First 
Dartmouth Lake, fronts some pretty fnrms and 
fjanlens, where the soil is moro warm and pro- 
ductive than in many other paits. Hero the 
Keelers and Taylors ami Laidlaws raise the line 
fruit anil ve^etahh's so prtpular in thf Halifax 
market. Tlu; property of («. A. S. Crichton, Ksij., 
known as " The Hrae," is fjreatly admired for its 
cultivation and natural heautv, and is celebrated 
for its tine peaches ami strawberries. The land 
on this belt is well sheltered, and presents a most 
fertile appearance. 

Standinor on the pjreen slope, under the shadows 
of the trees, the broad post-road is seen winding 
round the martnn of the lake an<l issuin<j into 
Preston. Horsemen, carriafjes, and foot passenrjers 
are constantly passing along the yellow highway, 
which is bordei'ed by the lake on one siile and by 
trees on the other. The effect is lovely, when in 
a boat floating gently over the blue lake we watch 
the shadows cist by the setting sun, and .see the 
green foliage loathed in a flood of living light. 

Dartmouth has so many points of natural 
beauty and interest, that it is difficult to exhaust 
them. Farrell's wood-s, Mount Thorn, the beautiful 
grounds of David Falconer, the high land on which 




stninl the liousos of .1. Walter Allison, T. Cutler 
iiiul others, lookinj; down upon the Imrhour, out 
to the li^'hthouse mul • l>('y(»n»l, — nil these Imve 

manifold attractions for visitors. M 



f tl 


shady woods are the picnic ^'rounds (tf the com- 
munity, where the children of the Sunday schools 
hold their annual feasts, and where the lover of 
mituie ^'oes to nuMlitate at eventide. 

Within tlu' township are Maynard's Lake, 
owned l»y the provincial government, Oat-Hill 
Lake, Penhorn Lake,* tlu^ Dartmouth Lakes, 
Russell's or Mac<lonald's Lake, Morris's Lake, 
Topsail and Lamont's Lakes, and All>i'(t's Lake. 
Besides these, f)ther peaceful and pretty inland 
waters may ho seen from some of the hei^dits, 
lyin<; half hidden amouf^ the graceful hardwood 

The old hif,d»way to Preston, liranching from 
the Cole Hai'hour Road, pa.sses many places of 
historial interest, which will be referred to in the 
followin(( ]iaf(es. The newer road which goes hy 
Topsail Lake, was hnilt many years ago, and now 
supplants the old one. 

* Jolin I'dilioi'ii was one of the iiroprietors of a tract of land 
granted in 1786 hut escheated in 1810 ((Jrant Hook 18, i)age 12, 
Crown Lands OHiee). I'enhorn Lake waa doubtless named after 
him or one of his family. — Ed. 





Altout 1700,* KI»('nc'/.L'r AlItMi, oiu! of tlio ori;,M!uil 
^'niiitoiis of Prostoii, stiirti'J a tanyar<l altout three 
milos from tlio tttwn of F)iutinoutl». on what is 
now the olil I'roston lloa<l. It was aftorwanls 
work«'<l !•}' his son, ilohn Alh'i), ami John 
Stayncr, who forinctl tiu! linn of Stayner and 
AlltMi. 'I'huv <ii<l a vt;rv' iarj,')' husin(^ss for some 
j'ears an'l acouinulatt!il ninch property hoth in 
Dartmouth ami Ifalifax. Aftera tinn.», they dissolved 
partnership, Mr. Staynei- takin*,' the Ifalifax pi'o- 
perty and Mr. Allen tiie lands in I'l'eston. Thi* 
latter worked the tanyard on his own account. 
The not aiuiuil profit was over three thousand 
pounds currency,! and some twenty or thirty 

* This (lii^c I lliiiik id too early. None of tiie laml in tlio 
vicinity liinl Itecii giaiitecl us early as 1700. 'riie lirst iiiL-iUion of 
the t.miii'ry wliii'h I liiive been .alile to tlnd, is in the deed d.iteil 
•Seili April, 17i>r>, l>y wliich l.,iiut<.MiuiL Williuin Floyer and 
Marg.iret Kloyer, sold to .John .Stayner, Alexander Allen atul 
Klieno.'.er Allen, th.' land (with the e.xecption of an acre) from 
where Woodlawn CV'inetery is now situated to the lirook "at tho 
south-west corner of Nleasrs Staynor and Allen's Tan Yard " ^ y'Ule 
Lili. 'M, fol. 201, Registry of Deeds, Halifax). Tiiis is the property 
on which the old Allen honie-stoad was built. The house wa."* 
burnt some fifty years ago, and a modern one now occupies tlie 
site. The acre retained by the I'loyers was the spot on whicli 
their cottage stood before " I'rook f Fouse " was built on the 
opposite or southern side of the road. This cottage was also 
destrt)yed by fire, and the house belonging to Cross, at the corner, 
was built on the land it occupied. See note on page 100, and also 
another, relating to the Floyers, in chapter VIII. — Ed. 

tM"*. Thomas Allen, a giandson of Ebenezer, assures ine that 
this large amount la correct. — E'l. 



f tilt* orif^iiuil 

1 til tout throe 

oil what is 

s at'torwiinls 

and John 

St.'iyiiLT and 

less for some 

d-ty l»<»tli In 

they (iissolveil 

TIaliFax pro- 

'restoii. The 

own account. 

reo thcjusand 

y or thirty 


tlie land in tlie 
Hi'Ht iiicntioM of 

tlii; (It-ed (l.iled 
111 Floycr ftii<l 
uUt Allen f\ii<l 
an iiort) from 

lirook " at tlio 
n Yftid " ( Vitle 

is tiie property 
The iioiHo was 
ow occupies tlie 
spot on wiiioli 
l)iiilt on tlie 

ttage was also 
s, at tlie corner, 
i;e 109, and also 
assures me that 


iiii'ii wvm constant!}' eniploytMl in the works. In 
KliMit, it was for years the only place of prolitahle 
Jahour for the Clu'Z/.etcook an<l colom'ed men who 
were willing,' and alile to work. Laliour in the 
lanyard, on a nnieh re'luced scale, was carrieil 
on for many 3'ears hy Mi-, Allen and his sons. 
Their dwellinirdiouses were all in the imiiuMJiato 
neif^dihourhood, hut the oM homestead has since 
disappeared, and none of the family at present 
reside near the place of their hirth. 

Mr. Allen belou^'ed to the Saridemaiiian V)ody, 
whose adherents at that time were nuniennis in 
the township. A short distance westward of his 
house, in a sunny sheltered ^lade, he laid out a 
buiyiiiff-ijround which is used until this day for 
the repose of the dead. Its early name was 
*' Woodlawn," hut it has always been more familiarly 
known as "Allen's Uuryintj-tiround." It was first 
U8e<i for interment in 1702, consecrate* 1 only by 
the tears and prayers of the mourners who went 
there t(> weep.* Many an early settler lies Ijeneath 

* 17<)- seems to l>e a mistake, for hy search made in the 
registry of deeds, I find tliat it was not until 14tli Aiu'ust, ITSf), 
that Ebenezer Allen purcliased from Samuel King 6'2\ acres of 
land which contained the plot now known as NVoodlawn Cemeteiy 
(Viile Lil). 23, fol. 108) He-sides lliis, Thomas Allen, Ksq , 
informs me that the Aliens were loyalists, and these people did 
not come to Nova Scotia until about 17'S4. It therefore seenig 
probable that both the cemetery and tanyard were not opened 


■ iM 



■. r; 

its grassy moiiiuls, whose story will be told as 
we pass along. 

Mr. Allen's eldest daughter married William 
Burch Brinley, Esq., son of George Brinley, Esq., 
deputy commi.ssary-general at Halifax in 1797 and 
afterwanls commissary-general of His Majesty's 
forces in the same place, which ofKce he held 
until his death in 1800.* Mr. Brinley built a 
house on the old Pret^ton Road. It was a pleasant 
country residence, named " Mount Edward " in 
honour of the Duke of Kent.f Afterwards it 

until about 1700. Tlioae interesteil in tlie matter should also consult 
the indenture dated I'ith March, 17S7, Kbenczer Allen to Anthony 
Stewart (Lib. 2."), fol. 348). John Allen, who is mentioned above, 
was the father of sixteen children. —/!,'(/. 

* " We find George Brinley cotnmi-'sary and storekeeper 
general in this girrison in October, 1797. His wife was a 
Wentwortli, sister t) Li;ly Wentworth. IJennin^ Wentworth 
was a l)rotlier to both these lidics William Birch Brinley, his 
son, married Joanna Allen, daugliter of John Allen. Ksqr., of 
Preston, N. S., and the only child of this marriage is the 
widow of Mr. William Lawsou. Mrs. (iore, deceased, the 
novelist, was grand-daughter of George Briidey, the commis- 
sary-general, her mother, Mrs. Moody, bein^ his daughter." 
(Murdoch's llhtory of Nora Scotia, vol. Ill, p. IQ'.i ) Rev. Mr. 
Eaton in his Church of Eiujland in Xooa Scotia (p. 2.j.'{) says, 
" One of George Briidey's daughters was Mrs. Moody, tlie mother 
of Mrs. (lore, the novelist, who, at tlie death of Sir Charles 
Mary Wentwo.-tli, inherited the Prince's Lodge estate at Halifax." 

+ " Mount Edward " is over half a mile to the eastward of 
Brook House, which will be referred to in a 8ubsc(iuent chapter. 
Woodlawn Cemetery ia just northwest of the latter place. - Eil. 


H be told as 

•riod William 
Briiilejr, Esq., 
in 1797 and 
[is Majesty's 
Hoe he held 
nloy built a 
as a pleasant 
Edward " in 
iterwards it 


lould also consult 
Ulen to Anthony 
entioned above, 

nd storekeeper 
lis wife was a 
iiig U'entworth 
icli Hrinley, Ins 
Vllen, Esqr., of 
irtiriage is the 
deceased, tlie 
, the comniis- 
his datigiiter." 
W ) Rev. Mr. 
I (p. 2.j;{) says, 
dy, the mother 
of Sir Charles 
te at Halifax." 

e eastward of 
luent cliapter. 
place. - Etl, 

became the .sninnier residence of Mr. Brinley's 
widow and her son-in-law, William Lawson. Es,,., 
and his fan.ily. The house has now fallen into 
tlecay, but the farm is well cultivated and some 
of the finest vegetables brought to the Halifax 
market, are gi-own in its fields. 

At one time the school at Allen's Tanyard was 
kept by Mr. Bennett, father of the late Jame^ 
Gordon Bennett, founder and proprietor of the 
Neiv York Herald. It is said that he was a good 
teacher, and he remained long enough to give 
many of those under his charge ail the know- 
ledge they ever possessed. 








IT has V)een stated on page 92, that in March, 
I860, George Gordon Dustan, Esq., had pur- 
chased from the Hon. John E. Faii'hanks the 
pi'operty known as " Woodsido," on the Eastern 
Passage Road. Mr. Dustan was much interested 
in manufactures, more especially in tlie refining of 
sugar, and for many yeai's he entertained the 
project of establishing a retinery for that purpose 
on his property. The situation of the land, its 
neai'ness to the Halifax market, with good water 
facilities, made this ])lace a desirable locality for 
such an enterprise. 

A company was foi'med in England under the 
naine of the Halifax Sugar Refining Company, 
limited. The head office was in the Walmer 
Buildings, Liverpool, England. G. G. Dustan, pro- 
ject(n' of the entei'prise, was one of the directors 
of the company. The paitl up capital was eight 
hundred and seventy-five thousand pounds. 



The foundation-stone of the Wootlside Retineiy 
was laid on the Srd of July, 1883. The building 
was finished, the works completed and the refinery 
in operation, with supir ready for the market, 
on the 1st of September, 1884. The refining 
capacity was one thousand barrels per day. The 
wharf on Halifax Harbour was an extensive one; 
frontage six hundred and fifty feet, and depth 
of water sufficient to receive the largest ships and 
steamers. Large sugar stores were erected ; the 
capacity of the ground-floor was twenty-five 
thousand tons of raw sugar, an<l the second 
floor contained room enough to store fifty thousand 
barrels of refined sugar; the attic acconnnodated 
sixty-five thousand empty barrels. A cooperage 
was on the premises, with steam machinery, capaltle 
of making a thousand barrels in ten hours. A 
branch line from the Intercolonial Railway, ran 
into the boiler-house, an<l alongside of the cooper- 
age, and sugar-stoi'es. The motto of the company 
was pure sugar and full weight. 

The refinery, as may be seen from these details, 
was in perfect \vf)rking order: and from 1884 
until the end of 1880, io afibrdod employment 
to a large number of men, and promised to be 
one of our most ]:)rosperous industries. Notwith- 
standing all its advantages, the result was most 




disappointinfj. Circumstances, the details of which 
are not witliin the scope of this paper, resulted 
in financial difficulties and great loss to the com- 
pany. In December, 18S6, the work was inter- 
rupted and the reKnery closed.* 

Among the numerous and important industries 
in the township, none are more extensive and 
celebrated than the works of the Starr Manu- 
facturing Company, limited. They are situated 
on the line of the old Shubenacadie Canal, V)etvveen 
the points at which Ochterloney and Portland 
Streets intersect the road leading by the shore 
of the first Dartmouth Lake to Preston and the 
eastern portions of Halifax county. 

These works were commenced in 1864 by John 
Starr, Esq., then a prominent hardware merchant 
of Halifax ; his object being to manufacture cut 
nails and other iron articles. He had already 
associated himself with John Forbes, Esq., a native 
of Birmingham, England. The latter came to this 
country when only a child. He afterwards went 






^^H ' 



"SB J 


1. *f - ' 

* The VVoo.lside Refinery worked for a few months ab lut 1888. 
lu 1891 it began once more, and has continued in operation ever 
since. In the beginning of August, 189.3, the company transferred 
the refinery to the Acadia Sugar Refining Company which had 
just been formed. — Ed. 



to the United States and perfected hiuiselt' in tiie 
various branches of mechanics and manufactures. 
He especially f^ained reputation by tlie invention 
of a new skate, which has acquired a worhl-wide 
fame. Messrs. Starr and Forbes carried on their 
works tofjether until 18G8, when the developntent 
of the business re(|uiring more capital, a joint 
stock company was formed with a capital of 
sixty thou.sand dollars. This capital was increased 
in 1871, to one hundred and twenty thousand 
dollars, and again in 1873 to two hundred thousand, 
at which amount the capital stock of the company 
now stands. 

The numl)er of persons employed in these 
works has varied from very few — about twelve 
or fifteen, at the beginning — to two or three 
hundred, according to the condition of trade. In 
1887, about one hundred and fifty were employed. 
It is principally by the manufacture of Forbes's 
patent Acme Skates, that the establishment has 
become famous, although a large trade has been 
done in the making of cut nails, and also in the 
building of iron bridges and roofs, vault doors, and 
various other heavy iron work. This company made 
the first iron bridge manufactured in Nova Scotia, — 
namely, the one hundred and fifty feet iron lattice 
span carrying the railway across Nine-Mile River 










at Elmsdale. All iron bridges previously erected in 
Nova Scotia, were imported from abroad. The 
mafjnificent vault doors of the Merchants' Rank 
of Halifax were built entirely by this companj'. 
The complicated and massive liolts and lockinf^ 
machinery of these dooi-s are most complete and 
verj' infi^eniously designed. A considerable portion 
of the filters, melting pans, containing vats, and 
tanks at the Nova Scotia Sugar Refinery, were 
also made by the Sl,arr Company. 

A visit to the building is most interesting to 
all who <lesire to uudt.'rstand the process of 
working iron and steel. There may be seen 
machines for cutting out and otherwise shaping 
the various pai'ts of .skates. In atiother portion 
of the huilding are the noisy nail machines, 
with their unceasing "chop, chop, chop," a.s they 
bite off the little elongated strips of steel or 
iron. Each of these strips becomes a finished 
nail and is dropped into a receptacle, before 
the watcher can realize what has been done* 
The busy feeders sit in front of the machines 
«'ind steadily turn the pieces of plate over and 
back. This is done in order that the wider ends 
of the nails may be cut, alternately, from different 
sides of the piece of metal. These and many 



other intcrestin<; inoclmniciil processes are carried 
on at the works. One of the most iinportant 
departments is that devoted to pUitin^, where 
deposits of gc)l(l, silver and nickle are put upon 
metals of a more easily oxidizable character. The 
Forl)es Acme Skates have been sold in almost 
all civilized portions of the world where such 
an article is in deniand. They have carried 
their manufacturers' names into Russia, Germany, 
Sweden, Norway, France, England, and the United 
States ; and even a few pairs have found their 
way into China and Siberia. 

About a million dollars have been paid by the 
company in wages since the establishment of 
their woiks ; and good and substanial houses have 
been built by the employees with their earnings. 
Between 1S74 and 1^78, the works suffered severely 
from the universal business depression of that 
period. The spirit manifested by the gentlemen 
forming the directorate, enabled the company to 
tide successfully over the diiliculties that threatened 
them. An arrangement was made whereby the 
establishment was enabled to go on with the 
manufactures, and tliey have not only succeeded 
in clearing oil' their obligations, but have also 
been enabled to pay good dividends to the share- 
holders. The enterprise has certainly been a very 




■ ly 










lur^e factor in i>nj)r()vinf:r and developitifj the 
prosjx'rity of the town.* 

Another important manufactory estahli.shed 
in the township (hu'ini^ the hist twonty-five years, 
\fi the works of tlie Dartmouth Rojiewalk Company. 
In LSOiS, after tiie confe(h.n'ation of the province.s, 
the firm of Staiis, Son, and Morrow, ah'cady 
lar^e importers of conhifjo, determined to retain 
find increase their trade, hy manufacturintr rope 
in tlic pi'ovince. Dartmouth was deci(k;d to he 
the most suitable phice for such an un(k'rtakin<:j, 
and a farm of sixteen acres witli a jfood stream 
of water ruiminijf throu^di it was jturchased in 
the nortliei'u end of the tiwnship. Tlie necessary 
buihlin^s and apparatus were at once erected. 
Earlv in l.S(il) the company Iteifan the manufacture 
of conhifT^'- Since then, it has retained tiie trade 
of the province and has r^dven en!ph)yment to 
fn^n one hundred to one hundred ami 'ifty men, 
women and boys, botli in summer and winter. 
The number of tons of cordnge manufactured, has 
steadily increased, year by year, an<l tlic reputation 
of the company's goods is saiil to be equal to that 
of any manufactured in the Daminion. At the 

*I liave to tliank .loliii Forlies, I'i-J'i., the inventor of the Acme 
Skate, for the greater part of the .iliove aoeoiuit, and for all tlie 
facts ami figures given therein. — Author'.-i Xofe. 



time when the rope-walk was started, nnrl for 
years afterward, the buildiiifj and e(inip[.ing of 
ships in Nova Scotia was a p-owiii^' Imsiiu'ss, and 
the company' looked forwai-d to an important 
increase in the demand fnr ship-corda^'e. 'J'he 
last few years, unfortunately, have shown a ,f,'rent 
falUn^r off in the demand, and this circumstance 
mifrht have eventually crippled the resourses of the 
company, had not a trade sjirun^r up which greatly 
increased the manufacture of small rope. This 
material Wiis required hy the lf»hster factories of 
Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island. A far 
more important branch has opened to the company, 
namely, the spinnincr and preparin/2: quantities of 
twine to he used in bindinc,^ the ,r^n-ain crop of 
tho Dominion. This trade they share with other 
manufacturers in Quebec, Montreal, and St. John, 
N. B. The coinpany's experience is, that its most 
satisfactory business is in such manufactures as 
were not even thou^dit of at the ince})tion of the 

It is apparent, of what rrreat benefit this 
establishment has been to Dartmouth, in the 
employment of so many persons, in the erection 
of houses required for the workmen, and in the 
general stir caused \>y the constant exj;ort of 
its manufactures. It is satisfactory to learn that 




.■'<:; i 




the company lias bofon; it a hopeful future based 
upon the wide and increasing markets of the 

Dartmouth has another industry wiiich is very 
important in its results to the conjfort of the 
community on both sides of the harbour. This is 
the cutting and storage of ice. 

We are now so accustomed to the daily supply 
of this article, which has become neces.sary for 
refreshment as well as for the preservation of 
food in the sununer months, that it seems almost 
difficult to understand how our ancesters did 
without it. About the year 1JS8G, an ice-house 
was built near the Canal Bridge on Portland 
Street, by Mr. William Foster, one of tlio oldest 
residents of Dartmouth, who was well and widely 
known until his death in IMvSl at the ripe age 
of ninety-two years. This house was upon a very 
small scale, and the ice was supplied in extremely 
limited quantities. At that time it was one of 
the greatest summer luxuries. It was conveyed 
in a wdieelbarrovv to Mr. Foster's shop in Bedford 
Row, Halifax, and there sold at a penny a pound. 

* I ivin indebted to the Hon. W, J. Stairs for the foregoing 
account of the rope-watk company. He was one of the founders, 
and is the active senior partner of the estaljlishnieut. — Author's 




In 1840, on some very hot (lays, u c.irfc carried 
ice thron^rh the streets. In 1813. A.iam Lai.Uaw. 
the ..1,1 and vvell-known driver of the sta<re-coach 
between Windsor and Halifax, commenced the 
cuttinrr ,ind storinfc of ice on a much lar^rer 
scale, and from that time made the industry his 
only business. As the supply increased, the demand 
grew more and more. His son, Peter Laidlaw, 
followed in the same line, and continued the trade 
until 1S'70. At that time, still larger (juantities 
began to bo called for. The lakes from which 
the ice crop was raised, being the property of 
Lewis P. Fairbanks, Esq., inten<ling speculators were 
obliged to purchase from him the right to cut. 
Albei-t Hutchinson, Edward Bowes, William and 
John Glendenning, and Chittick an<l Sons, have 
each carried on the business with increasing 
energy and success. The amount sold annually 
since 1880, exeee(Js twenty thou.sand tons. A 
large number of men receive good wa^es for 
cutting and storino: the ice. It is brought to 
Haliftix in large blocks, piled in heavy waggons, 
and the drivers leave daily supj)Iies with tli.>ir 
customers from May until ])ecen)bei-. 

The extensive employment of steamers for all 
ocean traffic, has decre.ised the demand for sailing 
vessels. ^J'hu shipyards of Dartmouth do not. 







ij i!; !(! 

• ! 

'8 ;!i 

M 'i ' 

therofoH!, present the liusy appeaniin'e of twi^nty 
yoarH a;^o. However, what one liraru'li of tho 
busiiiesH lias lost, anotluM* has ^^'ained. Tho 
Chehuct') M'lrine Railway Company, limited, has 
for thv! last twenty-seven years been in fnll 
operation, with inereasin;,' facilities for repairinj]^ 
sailinfj ships and sti^vmers. The company owns 
fonr larfje slips in Dartmouth. They were huilt 
by Mr. H. Cratuhvll, civil eni:fineer. The lar^'est 
slip is capable of accommodatiuLf a vessel of 
three thousand tons, and the three smaller ones 
will bear VV(!st Tndiamen and flshinfj vessels. These 
slips are randy empty. Ships comincj into harbour, 
constantly require repair, an<l tho owners and 
masters alike reco2'ni;5o the importance of tliis 
valuable marine workslu^p. 

The company was started in 1800, by Albert 
Pilsbury, Esq., then American consul at Halifax. 
Tie was a resident of Dartmouth for some timC) 
livinof at " Woodsido," and is still warnd}' remem- 
bered as a fijenial and accomplished man. The 
officers of the association consisted of Hon. Robert 
Boak, president, Mr Pilsbury and Peter Ross, 
Esq, directors, and John T. Wylde, Ksq., secretary. 
These gentlemen to(2jother launched the enterprise 
which has continued and flourished until the 
present day. 



A suporintcndont mid onpfim-cr witli two or 
tlii'ti" tn(>n arc cotistiuitly ('iiii)Ioyt'(l at tin' works. 
li('Iinir.s to vessels, and iiaititijij,', ai-e done liy 
uu'cliatiicH on tlicir own account. Tlic conipimy's 
cajiitii! is one Innnlrrd tlioiisarul dollars. 'J'\vic(! 
tliJit Sinn was spent in ac(|uirin^' the projierty 


soap works 

and m const rnetnifj tli<' works.* 

.Mr. Mott's chocolate, spice, 
]\{\\t' already been mentioned on pa<.^e 1)7. Other 
industiies have incidentally been sjioken ol" in 


le various cha[»ters 

The latest ])ul>lic woi-k in Dartniontli, and 
one which will eventually he tin; r^reatest factor 
in its trade and commerce, is the completion of 
the branch railway. 'I'liis line was connnenced 
and iinishe<l in 1.S.S5. It measures six miles from 
Richmond to the Woodside Su;.,nir lletinery. A 
bridi^e the Narrows connects the Dartmouth 
and Halifax sides, and the rails then follow the 
contour of the shore until Woodside is reached 
The bi'idL^e measures si.\ hundred and Hfty feet 
in length, and is laiilt in water fi'om si.xty to 
seventy-live feet in de{)th. Mr. M. J. Hof,'an, of 

ec, was 

the conti-actor and builder of the 
wood-work ; the Starr Manufacturing' Company, of 

1 luf t hclaicto Murine Hailwiiy Company is now amalgamated 

with the Halifax Uraving Docli Company.— A'(/. 




the iron superstructure of the draw-bridge ; and 
Mr. Duncan Waddell of Dartmouth, of the stone 
pier on which the iron draw swings. The pier 
is a solid piece of work erected in water forty 
feet deep.* On Gth January, 1886, the branch 
was opened for business. A train leaves every 
morning for Richmond, and coiuiects with the 
Intercolonial Railway. Another returns in the 
evening to the station in Dartmouth, with passen- 
gers or freight. There is no connectitm with 
the Windsor and Annapolis Railway at present. 

In 1887 Dartmouth had two newspapers, most 
loyal to the interests of the town. They compared 
veil with the weekly journals of Halifax. "f* 

* Tliis bridge, with the exception of the "draw" and one or 
two other portions, was swept away diuing a terrilde wind and rain 
storm on the night of 7tli Septeinljer, 1891. It liad l)een erected 
upon crib-work piers, filled with atones, to wliicii were bolted the 
piles and other superstructure. Tiiis plan had been adopted, 
because the engineeis, it is said, had reported that the bottom 
could not be penetrated by the piles. After the destruction of 
the work, the contract of rel)i)il(Ung it was given to Connor 
of Monoton, Kngineers again made an examination of the 
bottom, and this time tliey rejwrted it to be pai'tially soft. Tlie 
cril.-'.vork plan was abandoned, and piles were driven directly 
into the soil. This second structure was completed about 
January, 189:2. It nuist, however, have been extremely unstable, 
for abimt two o'clock on Sunday morning. '2'.h\l July, 1893, with 
hardly a breath of air moving, the greater part of the bridge from 
the draw to tlie Halifax shore, was oavried away, A train had 
crossed a'oout six hours before. Afier this second destruction, 
a strong effort was made to have the railwiy brought directly to 
Dartmouth without crossing tlic iiarbour. — Eil. 

tin 1893 the only newspaper was the Allautic Wt'tkly—Ed. 





IT is to be rop-ettecl that there are I.ut few 
private sources of information from which to 
gather the traditions and legends wliich belong 
to Dartmouth. The oldest inhabitants have all 
passed awaj-, and the contemporary generatit)n 
is more alive to the living interests of the present, 
♦han to the fading memories of the past. Preston 
has several stories belonging to the "days that 
are no more." These will be given in the history 
of that township. 

Of all the simple, pathetic legends of the two 
townships, that which recounts the sad <leath of 
poor Mary Russell is one of the most deeply 
interesting. Its recital has moved many a 
sympathetic heart with those achinir thourdits 
and memories, which such tales of a past time 
call forth. 

Nathaniel Russell was among the American 
loyalists who came to Nova Sc<7tia after the 
American Revolution. He obtained a piece of laud 





built a house, and settled in Dartmouth near the 
Cole Harbour Road in the close neighbourhood 
of Russell's Lake. He was the father of 
Nathaniel Russell, whose son, Benjamin Russell, 
Esq., is professor of contracts and commercial law 
in the faculty of law connected with Dalhousie 
Collefre, Halifax. The elder Nathaniel had two 
daughters. The fate of the eldest, Mary, was 
tragic and touching. She was engaged to a 
young Englishman named Thomas Bembridge — 
a morose, jealous and somewhat intemperate man. 
His love for the girl was very passionate, and 
he could not bear to see her walking with or even 
talking to any other man. Her father disapproved 
very much of these attentions to his daughter, 
and it was a long time before he would give 
his consent to their marriage. The importunity 
of both, however, at last won the day, but none 
of Mary's family were ever pleased with the 
young man who had gained the heart of the 
gentle girl. It was not very long, before there 
were awakened in her mind doubts as to the wisdom 
of her choice. His temper was violent, and his 
conduct toward her tyrannical and unkind. 
Quarrels were the result of every meeting. At 
last she told him, that he was making her life 
so unhappy by his and ill temper, that 







1(1 his 





everytliin^f between them must thenceforth be at 
an end. This rejection of his love only made 
him more passionate and vindictive. He dopf^ed 
her when ^oing^ out and comiiifj in, until her 
fear of him was so jii^reat, she hardly ever left 
her father's house unless under the protection 
of si-me friend. Often when intoxicated lie forced 
himself into her presence, and his protestations 
were so vehement and his threats so violent 
that fear of him became the rulinf^ passion of 
the poor girl's life. 

One night there was a grand illumination in 

Halifax to celebrate a brilliant victory of arms 

over the Fi-ench army.* The Russell girls with 

the rest of their neighbours walkeil down to the 
feriy to watch the scene and enjoy the play of 

light on the harbour. They remained until rather 

*I think Mrs. Lawson made a mistake regarding the illu> 
mination. as there is no mention of it in any newspaper I have 
seen. On the evening of 21st November, however, tliere was an 
illumination of Halifax to celebrate Nelson's victory in Aboukir Bay. 
It may have been that Miss Russell left her home to witness the 
effects of a violent ga'.e wliich had occurred on September 2r)th. 
Mr. York, who is eighty-five years of age, says that his father met 
Bembridge when the latter was going to Mr. Russell's. Bembridge's 
house is sai<l to iiavc l>eeu on the south .side of the Cole Harbour 
Road, and about a mile eastv.aul of the Russell's place. The nad 
ntar there is known as Break-Heart Hill. The young man who 
walked home with Miss Russell was William Bell, who I have been 
to'.d was then a ferryman at the Lower or Creighton's Ferry. — Ed. 




i ;, 


1 '! '' 

11 ■• 

i:i . 


H': -^ 

H> '^ 





late in the evening. On their return, Mary was 
joined by a young man who walked home with 
her. When talking over the events of the evening 
with her mother, after her escort had said goo<l 
night, she expressed her pleasure that Bembridge 
had not molested her as was usual. He had gone 
to Halifax and was detaineil there by some 
business wMch caused him to miss the party 
he was looking for so eagerly. He heard from 
someone that they had gone home, coupled with 
the unfortunate remark that he had better look 
after Mary as she had walked home with another 
young fellow. His cruel jealous}?^ was immediately 
aroused, and ho at once determined on revenge. 
On his way to the liussells' house,* he called upon 
a neighbour and asked him to lend a knife which 
he said was wanted bv one of the farmers to 

* riie Russells' house was ori a by-roail leiuling southward from 
the Cole Harlionr Itoad. Tins oy-ioad is a little over a quarter 
of a mile eastward of the junclion of the Cole Harbour with the 
Old Preston Koud, and therefore a little more than two inilcs 
from Dartmouth. The house was three hundred and thirty yards 
from the highway. B. Russell, Kmj., says that the double-house 
which is now at that place is not the one in which the irogedy 
occurred, but that it is on the same site. This double-house, he 
informs me, was built later by his father, the second Nathaniel 
Russell. Miss Russell was familiar'y known as Polly Russell ; and 
a large nppe tree, which doubtless still stands near the present 
house, was known as I'olly's tree. She is described as a very excel- 
lent girl. Her sister's name was Rebecca. —Ed. 


u- ■ 



ary was 
me with 
! evening 
lid good 
lad gone 
iy some 
lie party 
ird from 
led with 
tter look 
I anotiicr 

led upon 

t'e which 
irmers to 

J ward from 

a quarter 

with the 

two iniU'3 

lurty yards 


|ie trngedy 

■house, he 


|ssell ; and 

pe present 

lery excel- 

slaughtor an animal in the morning. S(!creting the 
knife under his coat, ho lost no time in making 
his way to the IJussells'. Miwy had gone upstairs; 
the others wore sittin<r round the fire as lionihridfje 

came into the kitcho 


Here is 



?" 1 



iked, " I 


t seo her." Mr. Russell refused to 

call her, hut Bemhridgo was so urgent, saying 
that he would only detain her a momont while 
he told her some news of groat impoi'tance, 
that her father asked her to come and hear 
what he had to say wliilc thoy were all present. 
The poor girl was inuoh agitated and very 
unwilling to see him, but puisuaded \>y her 
father she came down. Beinbri<lge begged her 
to go outside and speak with him alone. H(i 
was unable, however, to induce her to do so, 
and she told him he could say all he wished before 
her father and mother. Finding that entreaties 
would not move her, he came forwai'd and said, 
"Let me whisper to you; you only nuist hear 
it." With these words ho advanced, put his arm 
round her, and in an instant !iad plunged the 
knife into her heart. With a groan she fell to 
the floor, dead in a momont. He drew the knife 
from her breast and was alunit to use it on 
himself, when her father secured him before the 



wounds ho had inflicted on his own person were 
tV/iiil. He made no ctt'ort to escape, but said with 
intense satisfaction, " No one can have her now, 
I have put a stop to all that !"* 

He was taken to Halifax and imprisoned. 
Shortly afterwards he was tried and condt mned to 
deu<i>, uu'l on 18th October he was hanired. He 
nevei' u *we'l any j)enitence for the ci'uel deed, 
but died a" he had lived, a hanlened, unprin- 
cipled' Plan, I 'h' victim of his own selfish, ungov- 
ernable tem])(ji'. 

Mary Russell was bui'ied in Woodlawn Cemetery. 
There is no stone to mark where she sleeps, but 
her tragic <leath l)y the hand of her lover has 
alwa^'s been a touching chapter in the amials of 
Dartmouth. f 

In 17f))i, 8t. Piei-re was taken by the British, 
and a number of the inhabitants were brouirht 

*Tlie follo^^il)g contemporary nccoiuit of the triigedy may be 
interesting : 

" On Thursday (veiling, [27th Snpteniber, 1798,1 one neinhriJjfb, a young 
man rcB.diiiji at Daitinoiith, who hail for some time past, d'scovered on mtach- 
ment to Miss Kiissell, d:iughter of Mr, Kussell of that |)lace, went tii .Mr. It's 
house about nine o'l^lock, tntered the room where the family was cittinu, and 
expres-ed a wish to speak to Miss K. This Mrs. Uuss-ell refnsed, and expressed 
hir displeasure at his attention to hir daus;httr. This the villian probably 
expected, for, havinjf provided himself with a loiij.' bntuher"s knife he took an 
oi)iPi)rtunity iiiMucdiately after, and burio.l it with the most savajfe violence in the 
bosom of ilifi unfortunate girl, who almost immediately expired. The wretch 
then stopped [.-iVl himself in two itlaces, hut we b>^lieve not nior'al'y ; .assistance 
was ca led he was inunediately taken into custody, and will doubtless suHlt the 
proper vcni^eanci) of the law f.-r his iliab3!ic:il attrocity." — {The Itayul Gazette, 
Tuesday, ini\ Octbuer, \~'M). — Kd. 

t'l' tale forms No 1. of llie " Talcs of a Village." [The 

Prorh.ctnl, vol. I., pp. '_M--2i).)— 7iV. 



person were 
t said with 
e her now, 

ndtmned to 
mged. He 
cruel deed, 
ed, unpi'in- 
fish, ungov- 

n Cemetery. 

sleeps, but 

• lover has 

e iinnals of 

;he British, 
Ire brought 

;\gnly iHiiy be 

|iihrid){e, a young 

jvcieil an nltach- 

went to Mr. ll's 

was cittinK, and 

1(1, and expressed 

Ivillian probably 

knife he took an 

[re violence in the 

fed. The wretch 

•al'y ; assistance 

[ibtless suSElt the 

liinjul Gazelle, 

lllage." [The 

to Htdifax. Among them was the governor of 
the island, ^hmsieur Danseville.* This gentleman 
was a loyal and devoted adherent of the royal 
house of Bourbon, and he therefore refused to 
return to his native land while it remained under 
the usurpation f)f Napoleon. Governor Wentvvorth 
transmitted a memorial from him to the Duke 
of Portland on 10th October, 1794, requesting 
certain rights and privileges dui'ing his residence 
in Nova Scotia. Wentworth remarks, " Monsieur 
Danseville behaves himself discreetly and professes 
to be a royjilist." This gentleman al'terwards 
went to the Old Pre.ston Road and residt-d with 
a lady round whose memory there still lingers 
much of mj'stery ami romance. 

Many years previous to the arrival of the 
governor of St. Pierre, certainly as early as 1780, 
Lieutenant Floyei",f said to be a gentleman in His 

* 8t. rierre whs captuieil in the spring of 170.'?. On the '20th 
June, 1793, tlie frigate Alliijafur arrived at lialifa.x with live 
transports hearinj,' 500 to (!()0 prisoners fioin .St. l'i«-rre. Monsieur 
Danseville, the governor, came in the Alliijator. lie was at lilterty 
to walk ahout^. the town. In 180'J, lie received a pi^n.^ion of 
£106 I'Ja. 4d. stg. per annum, from the lirilisli goverinncnt. — AV/. 

+ His full name was William I''loyer. He was a lieutenant in 
the battalion of His Majesty's Sixtieth or Tloyal American 
Regiment of Foot, his eoniinissio.i i)eiiig dateil 17th March, 1779 
( r/t/e Army List) The Lieutenant purchased from Samuel King 
31 J acres of land on the southern side of the Old Preston Road, and 
27 acres on the opposite side of the highway. This was by deed 





Miijosty's service Imt not in uny regiment stfitioneil 
in Nova Scotia, urrivod at Halifax fi'om Euf^lanJ 
with a .lady whom he inti'oduced to the very few 
who saw her as his sister, Miss Floja-r. He 
purchased a property near Allen's tanyard on the 
Old Preston Road. There he built a pretty, com- 
fortahle cottage, and lived for some time with 
the lady who was always known as his sister. 
She is described by those who remember her, as 
a refined, intellectual woman, with a sweet, sad 
face, gentle and winning address, very reticent 


dated 14th August, 17S6 (Lil). 27, fol. ^o, Registrar of Deeds 
Office) ; and tlie price was ,i;2r»0. On the 20th of tlie same month, 
he sold the whole of these two lots of land, for £2.")0, to Margaret 
Floyer of Dartmouth, "u-hioin" (Lib. .30, fol. 3(1.3). On 2iid 
January, 1789, the wiiole of this land was mortgaged by Lieut. 
Floyer and Margaret Floyer, "single woman," to .S. .S. Hlowers 
for £100 (Lib. 27, fol. 114). Oa 30th April, 179."), (Lib .31, fol. 261), 
the plot on the northern side of tiic road with the exception of 
one acre at the corner where the cross-road is now situated, was 
sold to .J. Stayner, Alexander and Ebenczer Allen for £\')(} ; but 
strange to say we afterwards find Mai garet Floyer, "widow," 
mortgaging the whole of the oS^ acres to Tliomas X. Jefl'ery, on 
12tl) June, 1807, for flOO (Lib. 37, fol 441). Lieut. Floyer's name 
last appears on the deed of 30th April, 179.5. He must have left 
the province Eoon after that time— at aiiyrate before ISOl. The 
remainder of the deeds registered under the name Floyer are: 
Margaret Floyer to llieophilus Chamberlain, conveys Lot 12, 
Letter F, 3 acres, in Preston, dated 10. h March, 1801 (Lib. 34, 
fol. 421) ; T. Chamberlain to M. Floyer, 50 acres in Preston, 10th 
June, 1801 (Lib. 3.5, fol. .39) ; T. Chamberlain to M. Floyer, 20 
acres in Preston, 6th May, 1803 (Lib. 36, fol. 21")) ; M. FUiyer to 
Thomas Donaldson, 50 acres in Preston, 15th February, 1812 (Lib. 
40, fol. ]34.)—Eil. 



Esiit stationed 
oni Eiifflund 
he very few 
^loj'ei". He 
yard on the 
pretty, coin- 
time with 
s his sister, 
iber her, us 
sweet, sad 
ry reticent 

istrar of Deeds 

ic Raine month, 

lO, to Maryaret 

03). On 2ii(l 

i{,'Oil by Lieut. 

S. S. Blowers 

I) .*U,fol. 261), 

e exception of 

situated, was 

or t'l.lO ; hut 


|X. Jert'ery, on 

"loyer"s name 

lust have left 

1801. Tho 

Floyer are : 

[eys Lot 12, 

m (Lib. 34, 

preston, 10th 

Floyer, 20 

d. Floyer to 

■, 1812 (Lib. 

and rjuiet, hut excecdin^fly courteous to all who 
knew her.* While Lieut. Floyer remained with 
her, they wore constantly to;]^ether, not seekinjj 
the acquaintanc(? of anyone, and most uncom- 
municative to the few who had access to them. 
The tradition is vague as to the length of time 
he staj'ed in the townshij), but probably it was 
not longer than a year or two.-f- When his 
departure was announced, it was said that he 
was going to join his i-egiment which had arrived 
at Jamaica. To tho surprise of eveiyone. Miss 
Floyer did not accompany him. No reason was 
given for her remaining in Dartmouth ; and if any 
questioned, no informati(jn was bestowed. Good 
servants were enfrajred to do the indoor and outdocn' 
work of the cottage and garden, and Lieut. 
Floyer, as was generally believed, went to the 
West Indies. Curiosity and gossip were busy 
with the names of the mysterious pair. The 

* The story of this sweet, mysterious lady, forms No. 2 of 
Mrs. Lawson's " Tales of Our Village." It will be found in The 
Provincial, volume I, pages 109-113, 141-145. The reader must 
bear in mind, that in The Provincial the writer filled in the details 
of the story when her information was defective. In the present 
essays, however, facts oidy are given, and the tales are told with 
historical accuracy. — Ed. 

+ He was here in 1795. See note on page 132. — EJ. 




lady lived on in oxtrcino seclusion, looking,' nioro 
frail and siid timn on her Hrst urriviil, hut no 
\vo)'<l oF complaint or lonolinoss was hoard from 
her. She was very fond of quiet walks throufjh 
the woods, as well as of hooks and flowers. Often 
was she met in the f^^reen lanes an<l shadiMl wood- 
lands ahout the villaife, with a book in her hand, 
fretjuently stooj)in<( to jLCuthin* tlie sweet wild- 
tlowets. All who saw her wen; attracted hy her 
sad, patient eyes, and face so full of memories. 
Her little ^ardiiu was her only recreation, and it 
well repaid her care hy its borders of bloom. A 
few visited her. She always made them welcome, 
but rarely returned the calls unless she could 
bestow a kindness or l)e useful in illness. She 
was very fond of children ami exceo<lin^dy kind 
to theui. The little ones often went to see her, 
and she took great pleasure in their visits and 
always had for them a store of sweetnieats and 
toys. There are some still livintif who dimly 
remember the kind lady who always liad .some 
new pleasiire in reserve for her little visitors. 

When Monsieur Danseville decided to take up 
his quarters in Dartmouth, he was attracted to the 
little cottage by its refined appearance and garden 
of flowers. He called to en(|uire if he could 
be accommodated with lodgings. To the surprise 



looking' inoro 
rival, l)ut no 
■i hoard IVoiii 
iilks tliroufrli 
)\V(M\s. Often 
shaded wood- 
in her hand, 
sweet wild- 
icted hy her 
of memories, 
ation, and ifc 
)f bloom. A 
em welcome, 
^ she could 
llness. She 
lin^dy kind 
to see her, 
• visits and 
itmeats anrl 
who dimly- 
had some 
to take up 
icted to the 
md fjarden 
he could 
16 surprise 

of tlte nei^dihouihood, his re(juest met with an 
atKrmative answer. Miss Floyer willin;,dy accepted 
him as an inmate of her home. He was a charm- 
ing conjpanion — polished and polite as French 
fjentleman irenerall}' are, a man who had travelled 
and seen much of society and was accpiainted 
with all the accomplishments of refined life, fond 
of hooks and fonder of Howers. ITndrr his 
tasteful cai'e, the cotta<^'e and garden Itecame most 
charming. He hail a wHV^ and family in his own 
dear France. With his neighhours he was veiy 
genifil and comjianionahle, talked freely of his 
people and his home, and of all the change of 
fortune and ])osition consequent ui)on the chances 
of war. A few still rememher the courtly old 
gentleman with silver hair and charming manners, 
who made himself happy under adverse circum- 
stances, and like a true philosopher, took without 
.stint all the pleasure which even exile offered to 
his easy, simple nature. He and Miss Floyer 
always appeared to he on terms of the most 
pleasant frien<lshiji, hut none knew wliether he 
had ever gained her confidence or learned tlie 
mystery of her story. Miss Floy<!r was always in 
easy circv.mstances. Remittances arrived punctually 
from England, Her wants were few, hut she 

• I 



HIMToltV OF IiAUTMonir. 


liv('(| ill coiiifurt, almost in iitHuciico, iiiid I, 
cottii;,'!! was a pKsiHatit, {H'otty lioiiio.* 

Governor Danscvillo fcariii'' that it miirht be 
years before; he couM rc^tuni to 1'^ ranee, ami also 
to till his leisure time, in<lueeil Miss Floyer to 
consent to the buildinif of a larirtjr house on 
another part of her propiM-ty. The result was 
tt loiii;, low, stone cotta;^^! with a flat roof, set 
in a sheltered situation end surrounded by forest 
trees. He spent a ^^reat d"al of time and money 
in the ornamentation of the ffrouiids. Walks were 
cut throu^di tlu! woods, a fish-pond was mad» 
near the house, and the immediate ^n-ounds (ille<l 
with Howers. Before the eottape was (piite 
finished, the one in which they had been livinj^f 
was destroyed by lire durint^ their temporaiy 
absence from homt?. 'i'his tire occurred in the 
summer. They took poss(?ssion of the new 
before it was finished and personally supervised 
its completion. Soon it became even more 
brifdit an<l comfortable than their old home. 
Tiie Governor's ^ood taste made the surroundings 

* AiDong the accounts of the anle, about 1801, of t}»e cattle 
belonging to the Maroon property, I find that " Mt. Floyer " 
purchased a chestnut horse called Floyer, for £10. Here we see 
the kindly lady obtaining the animal which was probably named 
after her or the Lieutenant. (Vide MS. Records, vol. 419, paper 
No. 121).— Ed. 



very cliurinini;. Tlic low vcnindalj wiis covtM'ed 
with roses aii«l cro(?|H'rs, tlu^ liiwii in front was 
preen uinl smooth, and the ^'rass-plot tilled with 
flowers. In those; early days, when cultivation 
of the rouf^hest kind was all that could he 
accomplished in the vicinity of Dartmouth, " Hrook- 
House ", as th<! (lovernor's residence was called, 
had the admiration of all who passed hy.* 

There the two exiles lived in (piiet conij)anion- 
ship until 1<S14, whcsn the ^dail news was hi-ou^dit 
to Halifax that tlu^ p'cat Napoleon was a prisoner 
on the Island of Elha and that the l>ourl)ons liad 
once more come to their c untry and throne.f 
Governoi" Danseville was overjoyd at- the restora- 
tion of the royal family. His enthusiasm and 
excitement were unhounded. He at once dressed 
himself in his long-unused uniform, put on his 

• Brook House still stnnds. It is on the Old Preston Road 
nearly three miles from the town of Dartmouth. The house is 
somewhat changed from its original de.sign, having been heightened 
and otherwise altered by T. K. Orassie. Mr. Thomas Allen, 
who years ago resided close to Brook House, thinks tliat the 
verandah was added at the same time. Margaret Floyer's tirst 
cottage which was destroyed by tire, was sittxated on the northern 
side of the road immediately opposite Brook House. The site of 
the cottage is at the north-eastern angle of Cross's present house at 
the corner of the roads. — Eil. 

tOn Saturday, 2l8t May, 1814, a packet called the Express 
arrived at Halifax, bi inging news of the abdication of Napoleon 
and the restori*tion of the Bourbons. — EJ. 





hat with its wiiite cockade, and walked up and 
down the road durinjj the whole afternoon of 
one day, shoutini^ " Vive la France I" He made 
preparations for his immediate departure, and in 
the first ship bound for the old world he took 
his passage from the land he had so lon^ trodden. 
He parted from the gentle lady who had shared 
his exile, with eveiy demonstration of friendship 
and regret, and he wont hack a free and hap])y 
man to the home and friends from whom he 
had been so long separated. 

Miss Floyer's lonely life was now more lonely 
still. She seldom left her house. The neighbours 
rarely saw Jior, and when they did, it was to 
discover that her health was failing under the 
continual strain of solit\ide and memory.* Not 
long after the departure of Governor Danseville, 
she became ill with erysipelas in the face and 
head. She was so quiet and uncommunicative 
that even her servants were not aware of her 

* In The Prorincial (vol. I, p. 144) Mrs. Lawson says, that 
the last time Miss Floyer was ever seen on the road, was when she 
was returning from a visit to Halifax where she had gone to receive 
her quarterly allowance ; " she had a volume of Zimmerniann on 
Solitude, in her hand, which she remarked in passing, to a neigh- 
bour, had much interest for her, as she experienced all the 
advantages and disadvantages of the state which the German 
poet so eloquently describes. Poor solitary lady, her term of 
exile was nearly overl" — Ed. 




serious illness until it was too late for help to 
avail. CJoin*^ into her room one morning, they 
found her unconscious. Me<lical aid was ])rocured, 
kind nursing and womanly sympathy gave their 
best, hut in a few days, witliout any return of 
consciousness, she pa.ssod into tliu great unknown 
country. She died as she had lived, hafHing 
curiosity, and her story remains a mystery until 
this day.* 

It was generally believed that the gentleman 
who accompanied her frou) England was her lover, 
not her brother ; Imt why he never returned to 
her or what was his fate was never known. Others 
believed that she had bi-ought disgrace upon herself 
and her family in England, that Lieut. Flo^'er 
was really her brother and that he had conve3'e<l 
her to Nova Scotia to expiate her sin or her 
shame in this solitary exile.f 

* Miss Floyer died on Friday, 9th December, 1814, aged sixty 
years according to the inscription on lier gravestone, but sixty-four 
years old according to tlie tiiree deatii notices in Halifax papers, in 
whicli she was called Mrs. Margaiet FJoyer. She therefore must 
have been born in 17*55 or 1750, and was about twenty-five or 
thirty years old when she came to Halifax. There is no will 
recorded under her name in the probate office, Halifax. — Ed. 

tin the complete series of nine deeds whicli I have searciied 
and mentioned in the footnote on page 132, being all which are 
registered under the name of Floyer, Margaret is twice called a 
'• widow," and once a "single woman." In the remainder she is 
merely termed a "gentlewoman." — Ed. 



Hor death was announced to lier family, thronf]fh 
the a^ont by wlioiu her money had lieen remitted, 
by Sii' John WentworMi who was then living 
privately in Halifax. John (Jould FI()y<>f, repre- 
senting himself as the son and heir-at-law of 
Anthony Floycr of Retshy or KetsVij', Lincc^ln, who 
was the eldest brother of Marfifaret Floyer, spinster, 
late of Preston, gave Sir John Wutitworth a power 
of attorney to administer in his aunt's estate.* Mr. 
Robie was Sir John's solicitor. Mr. John Waite, 
mayor of Hoston, Lincoln, England, brother-in-law 
of Miss Floyer, represented the claimant in England. 
Mueh correspondence passed between the parties. 
TIk; heir-at-law urged the sale of the propi-rty, and paymi'iit of all just debts, to have tiie 
balance of the prooccls remitted to him. This 
reasonable recjuest docs not apj)ear to have been 
granted. C'orres{)ondence with regard to the 

*Ilie Floyeis were a very ol>l I'jiRliali fiiinily, wlioae lineage 
will he found in Hiirke a Latidcd Gevlry of (trenl Jiriluiii, (0th 
edition, 1870, vol. I , pp. !j't'i!S'H\). If .Margaret Floyer was a, 
sister of Lieut Floyer, she must have l)<;(!n a daughter of William 
Floyer, of Retshyl?), County Lincoln, nnd of Athelhanipton, Dorset, 
who married in IT-Vi, Francos, daughter and co-heir of Edward 
Ayscfiglie, of Louth, County Lincoln, and who died ia 1759, 
According to a letter of .Tohii Waite to .T. B. Robie, (March, 1817,) 
now before nie, it is claime<l that Margaret's brother and aisteis 
then living, were Ann F?oyer and Richard Floyer of Claxbj', and 
Jane, wife of John Waite. Another brother, Edward, had been 
dead for some lime — Ed. 



Itusincss was extciidcfl Itotwoeii 1,S15 au'l ISU). 
The propel ty \v;is sokl to Lawrence HaitHlioi'iie, Ks(|., 
wlu) purchased it for the use of his Urother-in-Iaw, 
Rev. Charles lii^dis, then rector of Dartmouth. 
Mr. ]n<(lis lived there for many yeai's, and in 
addition to his other duties, lodged and tan^dit 
a number of boys. Of all those who spent their 
boyish years in tiie old French Governor's house, 
layir.f^ in a store of knowledge to make them good 
citizens and useful men, only T 13, Akins, D. C. L., 
(i. A. tS. Cricht(jn, and Henry Lawson are now 

Miss Floj-er was buried in VVoodlawn Cemetery, 
close to the (juiet home where so much of her 
lonel}' life had been sjient. The gentle lady's spirit 
Avas said to wander round the house and grounds 
during the ghostly midnight hours, always wearing 
the sweet, patient Icjok which characterized her 
in life. 

By the desire of her English friends, a largo 
stone slab was })laced over lier grave, where it 
remains until the pres(!nt time, weather-worn and 
moss-grown. The deep lettering is tilled with 
the rust of time, but her name and the date of 

*'riiuse three have died since tlie essay was wiittoii -Ed, 



n 1.'. ' 




her death arc still legible.* The lines l)clow, were 
written when standing by her grave some years 



Lone grave girt round by dusky trees 
Whose branches, rustling in the breeze, 
Keep well the secret t.-xle of her 
Who sleeps in this rude sepulchre. 

What was her story ? why the doom 
Of banishment, neglect and gloom ? 
None ever knew, and we to-day 
Perplexed and curious turn away. 

Lying around her many a form. 
Whose graves are lapped in sunshine warm ; 
.Simple and weary souls who rest 
Forgotten on earth's quiet breast. 

We see their graves, we pas.^ them by, 
They hold for us no mystery ; 
But to this stranger's tomb to turn, 
Still curious what it hides to learn. 

* Her grave is a little south of the centre of the cemetery, 
which is just to the north-west of " lirooU House." A horizontal 
slab, measuring about .'?J ft. \>y 7i ft. liy .') inches, au.l ap-parently 
of freestone, marks the spot where siie lies, healed forever of the 
fever of this life. In the .sninmcr, the Marguerites peep over 
tlie stone, and read their name and hers in the deep lettering : 
"Sacred | to the .Memory of ] Alatgarett [.sic] Fioyer | A 
Native of Kngkuid. j Died the 8th Deer. 1815 | Aged 00 years." 
As will he seen by a i.ote on page 1,30, the year and day of her 
death arc not correct in this inscription ; she died 9th December, 
1814, and was buried atone o'clock, Sunday, lltli December. — Ed. 

ics below, were 
^e some years 



the cemetery, 
A Iioii/iontal 
ii'I apiwrently 
forever of the 
'■^s peep over 
iep lettering ; 

Floycr ( A 
"1 00 years." 
<i flay of her 
'h Decemher, 
eml;er.— ^,/ 


Years have gone by, full many a score, 
Since exiled to this lonely shore, 
She came in v.-oman's tender grace 
With stately step and sweet, fair face. 

Of courteous speech and gentle mien, 
Cultured in Schoolcraft lore and keen, 
Subdued and silent, seeking none,— 
She came, she lived, she died, alone ! 

From youth, through womanhood, to age. 
Her story fills a turned-down page ; 
While none have seen, and none shall see 
Her secret of a century. 

What had she done .' why did she come ? 
Wc question, and the years are dumb. 
Whate'er the shame, whatc'er the sin. 
Her punishment should pardon win. 

Here in the shadow of this wood, 
She knew life's loneliest solitude ; 
Here where the tasscled pine trees wave. 
Time has been tender to her grave. 

The cold gray stone, in letters deep. 
Her name and birthplace plainly keep ; 
The moss-grown brick and morticed wall, 
Hold faithful watch and ward lluough all. 

Leave her in peace,- nor sung, nor said. 
Be word of doubt to vex the dead ; 
The Judge with whom the \crdict lies, 
Has balanced sin bv sacrifice. 


August, JS79. 


:f -' 

■11 V 

i' ^ 

'.•'>( ■ 

, l'3i 





After Mr. Inglis left Brook House, tlie place 
became almost a ruin. The garden was overgrown 
with weeds, the summer-houses crumbled into decay. 
The cottage, unoccupied and forsaken, was shaken 
by the storms, until with windows broken and 
front propped with great posts, it bore little 
resemblance to the pretty villa once ornamented by 
the old French Governor. Manj" years afterwards 
it was purchased by Thomas R. Grussie, Es(j. He 
put it in order, and used it as a summer residence 
until his removal to England. It was then sold 
to the late Hon. Michael Tol)in, who with his 
family occupied it for mie years. It is now in 
the po.sscssion of his son. The shadows of romance 
still surround the old place, and it will always be 
associated with the memory of Governor Danseville 
and the mysterious Margaret Fioyer. 

During the residence of the French Governor 
in Dartmouth, his secretary, Mr. Mizansean, or 
Mozanzien, was always in attendance upon him. 
This gentleman did not return to France with 
Dan.seville. He mari-ied a daughter of one of the 
neighbouring farmers and afterwards settled on a 
farm at tiie Eastern Passatre. 

Another tale comes to us from tiie same part 
of the township in which Miss Russell's tragic 




death had occurred — the scene beir.g Russell's 
Lake near the Cole Harbour Road. 

A' Mr. Jones, an eniiffrant from Scotland, had 
built a house near this lake, where he liad a 
small farm and also followed his trade as a 
carpenter.* He had a family of young children — 
hardy, rosj'-faced little ones who were growing 
up to share their parents' toil, full of life and 
health, as country children generally are. 

One bright Sunday afternoon in March, the 
three eldest, a girl and two boys, stole out of 
the house without their parents' knowledge, and 
ran down to the lake — their usual resort on 
week days — for a slide. The little girl remained 
on the shore while the boys went out upon 
the ice, running or sliding as pleased them bfst. 
The ice was loosening under the touches of spring, 
and one little fellow, while crossing the current, 
fell in and went beneath the water. His brother 
seeing him disappear, ran to his assistance, and 
at once sank in the same place. The little girl 
watching from the shore, cried for help, and not 
waiting to be heard, hurried to the fatal spot 

*Mr. York ttlls me that Jones's house was to the eastward 
of Russell's place, on the Cole Harbour Road. There was also a 
house belonging to a Jones in the fork of the Cole Harbor and Old 
Preston Roads, as will be seen on a map, water marked 1795, in 
the Crown Lands Office. — EiL 


■ :i 

i ' 








where her brothers were perishing. The break 
in tlie ice had widened. The margin of the 
separated parts was thin, and gave way under the 
child's weight. Her parents anrl some neighbours 
had heard lier call for assistance, l)ut before they 
could reach the lake, slie had fallen in. The 
three children were all below the cold, dark 
water, struggling with death. It was impossible 
to save them. All that could be done after many 
efforts, was to raise the three lifeless bodies from 
the lake and bring them to their desolated home. 

Nearly three-quartei's of a century has passed, 
since in that (]uiet cottage, Mrs. Jones, like Rachel, 
stood " weeping for her children and would not be 
comforted l)ecause they were not." Time touches 
all thinjfs with tender hand. The hearts which 
were breaking on that Sunday afternoon, have 
long been at rest, but the story of the three 
little ones who perished together in Russell's Lake 
has often been told, and children have listened 
with wet eyes to the sorrowful tale. The three 
ai'e buried side by side in the burying-ground of 

The townspeople have always been much intei- 
ested in the mysterious disappearance of Dr. 

* There is no inscription to distinguish their graves. This 
sad story forms No. 7 of Mrs. Lawson's " Tales of Our Vilhige " 
(The Provincial, vol. II, Halifax, 1853, pp. 128-133).— A^/. 



Macdonald, which occurred in 1840.* He Mas a 
Scotchman, inunarriod, kindly in his feelinffs and 
quiet in his habits, a ^ood niajjistnite, and a 
useful citizen. Everyone liked and respected him. 
He lived in his own house, and was waited upon 
by a man and his wife who were with liim up 
to the day of his sinf^ulur disappearance. On 
Sunday afternoon he was last seen by his friends 
in Dartmouth. He was then in his usual health 
and spirits. His man servant asserted that on 
Monday, St. Andrew's Day, 30th November, 1(S4C, 
Dr. Macdonald left home about nine o'clock in the 
morniiif^, his usual hour for going out. He was 
dressed in his ordinary clothing, and no change 
was noticed in his manner or appearance. It 
was supposed that he went, as was his daily 
custom, in the ferry-boat to Halifax. From that 
time he was never seen or heard of again. Not 
having any family, his absence did not cause 
the anxiety that would have been felt under 
other circumstances, and no proper investigation 
was made at the time as to the cause of his 
disappearance. When suspicion and enc[iiiry were 

*A public meeting held in March, 1851, investigated the 
affair. The testimony of the Doctor's servant will he found in 
DesBrisay's ".Sketches of Diutniouth." (The Provincial, vol. I, 
p. 424 )— A'tZ. 



at last aroused, it was too late for discovery. 
What was everyone's business, was found to be 
the business of no one individually, and though 
there was much conversation on the subject, no 
definite steps were taken to elucidate the mystery 
surrounding the occurrence. It was believed that 
Dr. Macdonald had a large sum of money in 
his possession at the time of his disappearance. 
His fate has often been the subject of wonder 
and speculation, and not a few believe that the 
kind hearted old Doctor came to his end by 
foul play, and that the mystery of the affair will 
yet be brought to light. 


ite :■ 

)r discovery, 
found to be 
and though 

subject, no 
the mystery 
>elieved that 

money in 
of wonder 
e that the 
lis end by 
i affair will 











THE townsliip of Preston was surveyed mul 
laid out in lots in the year 17.S4 by 
Tlieopliilus Cluunberluin, Es(i., deputy sur- 
veyor of the province, under the instructions of 
Charles Morris. Es(, , chief surveyor of lunds in Nova 
Scotia. These lots were ^n-anted on 15th October, 
1784, to the said Theophilus Chamberlain, and' 
one hundred an<l sixty-three others, princip,dly 
Loyalists, who at the time of the American 
revolution against English rule, left home and 
country, so as to maintain inviolate their al lenience 
to the British Empire.* 

The township was bounded ns follows: begin- 
ning at the north-western angle of the township 
of Lawrencetown, thence to run noi-th ten degrees 
west, eighty-two chains of f(nn- rods each ; thence 
west, one hundred chains; thence north fifty-tlve 


• s 

Seo Grant Book 14, page IIG, Crown Lands Office.-j?</. 




degrees east, one hundred und ninety-two chains ; 
thence north thirty-five defrrees west, three hun- 
dred and sixty-nine cimins ; thence north eighty 
degrees east, twelve inindred and seventy-eiglit 
chains, or until a line produced south by the 
magnet comes to the centre of an island in the 
first lake up the Chezzetcook River ; thence to 
run that course, three hundred and ninety-five 
chains to the said island ; thence to begin again 
at the bound first mentioned and to run north 
eighty-eight degrees east, on the back line of 
Lawrencetown, one thousand and seven chains to 
Chezzetcook Harbour ; thence to be bounded by 
the said Harbour running to the mouth of the 
rivei" aforesaid and up the several courses thereof 
to the aforesaid lake ; and from thence to the 
island beforementioned. 

Th'..^ ti'act contained fift^'-six thousand seven 
hundred and seventy-two acres, of which thirty- 
two thousand were granted to Chamberlain and 
the other applicants. The remaining part was 

The names of the original grantees and pro- 
prietors are given below : 

Theopl'ilus Chamberlain, Balthazer Creamer, 
Samuel (Jreenwood & Co., William Jordan, 
Micluiel Houzeal,(a) George Brown, 

Titus Smith, 

Joseph Russell, 



Christian Carter, (a) 
Jolni H. Fleifjpp, 
Georffo Wcstphall, 
Robert O'Brien, 
Francis J. Mullock, 
Tobias Miller, 
Huffh Kellv, 
Silas Allan, ((() 
Peter Davis, 
Benajah Hoyt, 
Edward Crawford, (a) 
Isaac Hoyt, (<i) 
Ebenezer Allan, 
John Kelly, 
Ebenezer Leadbetter, 
John Lindsay, (a) 
Thomas Croffs, (^0 
John Greenwood, (f() 
Sanniel KitiLr, 
Adam Dechazeau, 
George Smith, 
EIizal)eth Handasj'de, 
Charles Handasj-de, 
Jeremiah Banistead, 
Robert Jackson, 
Philip Adams, 
Anthony Huffman, (a) 
William Rogers, 
Hu^h Foley. 
William McDonald, 
Joseph GrilHth, 
Patrick Henrachen, 
Henry Weishuhn, [a) 
John VV.ikenfield, ((/) 
Frederick Rottecken, 
Joseph Giles, 
John Thompson, 


Sanniel Cox, (<i) 
Alexander J)unbar, (a) 
Robert Leslie, (d) 
Ralph Hari'ison, 
Isaac Kettle, (fO 
Job Bower (or Bowen),(a) 
Thomas Johnson, 
Thomas Dell, 
John ]^ickson,(a) 
John Hill, 
John Bell, 
John Crawford, 
John Adams, (*0 
Daniel Murphy, 
Matthew Howell, (ft) 
Anfjus McDonald, 
William Stewarf,(o) 
Jacob Lanpley, (a) 
William Gordon, ((() 
Paul Lewis, (.') 
Jesse Larnard, 
John Frederick, 
William (Ji-ei uhill, (a) 
George Shnltz, 
John Shrum, 

Michael Soales (or Scales), 
Thomas Ross,((?) 
EbiMiezer Ci"ittinfrden,(a) 
Zachariah Parker, ((() 
Ebenezer Shclton, 
Stf'jihen Beldin^^(«) 
William Berry, 
Patrick Conner, 
John Maloney, (f') 
William Reeves, 
Geoj'^e Bissett,(f/) 
Benjamin Wells, 






:ii J 

Ml ' 



John Belief on taine, (a) 
Mark Jones, 
John Todd, 
James Hamilton, 
John Boyce, 
Zebulon Schofield, 
George Morrison, {a) 
Peter Fredson, (a) 
Thomas Hunt, (a) 
Robert Grimes, 
Nicholas Tibou, 
Daniel Crawford, (a) 
James Nuirent, 
John McFall. (a) 
Charles Collins, (a) 
Jesse Gabriel, 
Michael Igler, (a) 
William Chapman, 
John Ferser, (a) 
Henry Inners, 
Al)ner Wood, (a) 
John Walsh, (a) 
Benjamin Lncas, (a) 
David Caldier, (^<i) 
Walter Caldier, (a) , 
William Townsend, (a) 
William Hilly, rn) 
Alexander Taylor, 
Peter Fynucane, 
William Biymer, ('(.) 
George Robinson, (a) 
William Fredson,(rt) 
Charles Stuart, (<i) 
Charles Fredson, (a) 
Charles Brempton, (a) 
Donald McDon-drl, 
George Snider, 

Robert Gilfillan,(«) 
Archibald Lang, (a) 
Thomas Trope, (d) 
Daniel Dervin, (a) 
Lawrence Crawford, 
John Crawford, 
John Gass, (rt) 
Peter Beech, (a) 
Mary Mullock, 
Eleanor Mullock, 
William Jennings, 
Matthew Creed, (a) 
John Jackson, 
Archibald Crawford, 
Finley McGilvery, 
William Tybou, 
John Smith, (a) 
John Knight, (a) 
Kenny Morris, (a) 
James Negro, (n) 
Ed w ard Har v ey , (a) 
Sfimuel Vaughan, («) 
William White, 
Abraham Todvin, 
John Frederick, 
Emanuel Mtiller, 
David Miller, 
Francis Findley, (a) 
John Miller, (a) 
Maria Fisher. 
John Malone, (a) 
Thomas Wester, (a) 
John Andersori, 
James Henry, (<«,) 
Charles Dolphin, 

J Richard, 

Cuff Freston, (a) 


British Freedom, 

John Smith, 

S Bristoe, (a) 

David Stafford, (a) 
John Collins, 

William Hicks,(a) Anthony Woolet. (a) 

All the land belonging to those whose names 
are marked with an (a), was escheated on 7th 
June, 1815. 

There were a few settlers in the township 
previous to this time, probably some straggflers 
from the three hundred and ^fty-three emigi-ants 
who landed in Dartmouth in the year 1750. Their 
names, however, are not recorded. The history 
of Preston must begin, therefore, with the date 
of the first survey in 1784. 

Many of the names which appear in the grant 
just mentioned, were those of persons resident in 
Halifax, some of whom never took possession of 
the property allotted to them. Others wlio failed 
to comply with the conditions which bound them 
to make some improvements on the land in a given 
pei'iod, had their grants escheated about 1814. 

Several of the persons who took possession 
were of English descent and former inhabitants 
of the New England States. At the time of the 
rebellion against Great Britain, many of them 
left with their families to seek another home 
under the protection of the British flag. Some 



received grants of land in Preston and Dart- 
mouth, and anionop those wh ) settled there, we 
find the names of Stayner, Greenwood, Kincj, 
Allen, Russell and Wisdom. Other grantees of 
Preston were Germans and disbanded soldiers who 
were more especially under protection of the 
government whose aid was instrumental in open- 
ing up the country for their' benefit. Roads were 
laid out and cut from point to point by soldiers 
of the Halifax garrison. A number of houses were 
erected, many of them most primitive in construc- 
tion ; and the land was brought into cultivation 
by hard and continuous labour. 

Soon after the settlement of Preston in 1784, 
a large number of free negroes emigrattd to Nova 
Scotia at the clo,se of the American revolutionary 
war, and many of them settled in the township.* 
They soon became disvsatisfied with the discomforts 
and poverty of their now life. Unaccustomed to make 
provision for themselves, they were unable to supply 
their own wants, and proved a most un.«atisfactory 
class of emigrants. Measures were consequently 

*In April (Haliburton says th April), 178.5, one hundred 
and ninety-four of these negroes iirrived at Halifax from St. 
Augustine. They were almost naked, imd destitute of every 
necessary of life. The (Governor had to ask for rations, clothing 
and Llaiikets from the military stores, for their relief. — Ed. 



; i- 


taken to remove them to the ne^ro settlement at 
Sierra Leone, Africa.* On the 15th of January, 
1792, these negroes, numbering eleven hundred 
and ninety-five, embarked in sixteen [fifteen] vessels 
for that port. Sixty-five of them died on the 
passage ; the remainder arrived off the coast of 
Africa on Gth March, 1792. 

On 2()th December; 1787, a tract of four thou- 
sand seven hundred acres of land in Preston was 
granted to Thomas Young and others. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the proprietors : — 

Thomas Young, 

Thomas Settle, 
Edward Williams, 

Jasper Rogers, 
Thomas McMinn, 
James Jones, 

•Lieut. John Clarkson, R. N., undertook the deportation of 
tliese negroes. With him, was associated Lawrence Hartsliorne, 
Esq., of Dartmouth. From the 6lh August, 1791, till the ITjth March 
following, Clarkson kept a voluminous journal uf his proceedings. , 
A manuscript copy of this is preserved in the Legislative Library, 
Halifax. Selections from this journal will be found in Sir Adains 
Archibald's "Story of Deportation of Negroes from Nova Scotia 
to Sierra Leone" (CoUectionn of X, S. HiMorical Socirty, vol. VIL 
pp. 129-154). Tlie following extract from the diary, may be of 
interest: — October 12, 1791. " Went over to Dartmouth, . . . and 
rode through the woods till we reached Preston. ... On our ride 
towards home we called upon an honest j-ardener who showed me 
some of the maple sugar as well as the trees in his neighbourhood, 
and also a specimen lie had letined, equal to any I had seen in 
England. This man is an excellent botanist and lays out part 
of his garden for experiments." There is little doubt in identifying 
Titus Smith as the worthy gardener whose good qualities are 
referred to iu the above extract. — Ed, 



1 . , '^*^' 

■ , ■ • "tt 


. :i (V 



(' ■ . > ;:!' 

i 1 : 

1; „: 

» ■ ■ 

] * 
J '■ 

Samuel Brandon, 
Sebastian Spainter, 
Benjamin Smitli, 
Joseph Wliite, 
Henry Gower, 
Thomas Cunen, 
James Birmingham, 
John Curren, 
Andrew McMinn, 
John McMinn, 
Dominali Savage, 
George Pegg, 
Charies Jones, 
Jolin Readman, 

Christopher Edmondson 

Courthind (Squires), 

Scott (Murray), 

Crispin (Just or Juit), 

Williams (Bell), 

Sam (Elliot), 






Joseph Tybe, 

Thomas Fulton, 



Andrew Rogers, • 

William Dunstar (or Dunstan). 

During the hostilities between France and 
England, other French gentlemen besides Monsieur 
Danseville* made Preston or Dartmouth their 
temporary home. These were officers who had 
been taken prisoners in some of the many engage- 
ments of the time. They were stationed on parole 
in Dartmouth and Pi*eston.f No restriction was 
placed upon their liberty, as they had given their 

* See page 131. 

+The following advertisement appeared in the Weekly Ohronicle, 

Halifax, 14th Sept., 1810 :— 

Run from parole at Preston, on Thursday, the 23rd ullimo, Jban Rosirr, 
a Fremh prisoner of war, late second captain of the French letter marque 
La Du);uay Trouin. He is 83 yean of n^te, 5 feet 6) inches high, dark hair, lii;ht 
grey eyes, round visage, fair complexion, person stout. .Mso, On the 7th 
instant Francois Chahmmon. late mnater of the schooner Le Caroline, 37 yc^rs of 
age, 5 feet 1h inches high, black hair, dark eyes, long visage, sallow complexion, 
his person stout — The usual reward of One Guinea will be paid for the appre- 
hension of either of them. Sept., 14th. Joseimi CocimA.v, Aijent for Prisoners 
of War. 


liiiii iiii 


I on (I son 




''rancc and 
is Monsieur 
outh their 
i who had 
iny engage- 
on parole 
ction was 
mven their 

ekly Chronicle, 

no, Jl!*N ROSIKR, 
h letter marque 
dark hair, Itirht 
iso, On the 7th 
roline, 37 ye^rs of 
\\it\v complexion, 
id tor the appre- 
nt for Prisoners 

word of lionour not to attemj^t to escape fi'om 
the country. Preston was their favourite ([uarters. 
There many of them made homes among the better 
class of fanners, who always foun<l them most 
agreeable inmates. Othei's occupied some tenant- 
loss houses situated in a portion of the township 
called New town, about half a mile northward of 
" Bi-ook House," and catered for themselves. They 
soon made their new homes very neat and attractive. 
Each house had its little garden full of tall holly- 
hocks and scarlet poppies, and their tiny poiches 
were set I'ound with scarlet-runners which crept 
gracefully over the rustic poles. They weie all 
true Frenchmen, gay of speech and light of heart, 
and they nuule the best of their adverse circum- 
stances, and won the good will of their neighbours 
by their geniality and kindness. Glad to accept 
the latter's friendly courtesies, they were always 
ready to return them in every way possible. Thus 
they soon made themselves at home among the 
hospitable country people. Like their Amei-ican 
fellow-exiles, who will afterwards be referred to, 
they tilled up their idle time bj' making love to 
the village girls. In some cases the flirtations 
became serious and ended in marriage. In others, 
though the young people were mutually impressed, 
yet the banns were forbidden by the parents. 


.- ■&■ 



After the peace of 1815, these French officers 
returned to France. They were always spoken 
of with affection and esteem years after they 
had returned to their own land. Some of them 
kept up an occasional correspondence with the 
friends they had made in Preston, and or ten sent 
little souvenirs of their regard. As late as 1850, 
one of them wrote to a friend in Halifax, saying 
how fondly the place of his exile was held in 
his memory, and how glad he would be if he 
could see dear old Preston again and wander once 
more through the village where he had spent so 
many happj'^ days. 

m i 

■1 ' 

I i|iil ii 






WHEN JaniJiica was conquered in 16o5, the 
Spaniards possessed fifteen hundred African 
slaves. These, wiien their masters sur- 
rendered, retreated to the mountains, from which 
they made fre(|uent descents to rob and otlierwise 
molest the English ])lanters of the island. To 
these were given the name of Maroons. For 
a number of years they harassed the island and 
robbed the phmtations, costing the government 
two liundred and forty thousand pounds in the 
endeavour to suppress their raids and punish the 
perpetrators. Their attacks became so frequent 
and destructive, that the troops were called out 
to capture them. The Maroons, familiar with 
the ''ecesses of the mountains, retired into a 
cavern, inaccessible to the soldiers, and there 
defied their pursuers. In December, 1795, forty 
chasseurs arriverl from Havana at Montego Bay, 
with about a bundled Spanish dogs or blood- 
hounds. Whether the planters actually intended 





to tnako use of tlioin in ovpturing the Maroons, is 
not certain ; but sticli tales of the ferocity of 
these animals were carried to tlie hunted free- 
booters, that fearinif the doirs niiL'ht be let loose 
Upon them, they determined to surrender.* When 
they were once fairly captured, the (government 
decided to remove them all from Jamaica. Accord- 
infjly in June, 17n(», three transports, the Dover, 
the Mary and the Avne, liavint,' on boai'd six 
hundred t Maroons, sailed for Halifax, Nova Scotia. 
They arrived at that [)ort on 22nd or 23i(l July, 
after a voya(,'e of six weeks from the West Indies. 
They were well provisioned and had abundant 
clothing. William Dawes Quarrell, Esq., came fi'om 
Jamaica in chari^e of them. An allowance of 
twenty-five thousand pounds was ^iven by the 
government of Jamaica for the purpose of settling 
the negroes in Nova Scotia. 

The Duke of Kent, who was commander-in- 
chief at Halifax at ^ the time of their arrival, 
was greatly interested in them, and went on board 
the transports to inspect the fierce banditti who had 


' » 

* See extracts from 11. C. Dallas's Hiatory of thf MarooiM, in 
Murdoch's HiMory of Nova Scotia, vol. Ill, pp. 155-157. Also 
Haliburton's Historical and Statistical Accotmt of Xova Scotia, vol. 
II, pp. 282-291.— .Srf. 

t Murdoch says the number was 500, Haliburton says " about 


^ r. 


, I 


: 1 





li says •' about 

caused so much terror and inflicted so much h)SH in 
the ishmd of Jnnuiicu. Tlic Maroons receive*! him, 
all dressed in neat uniforms, with a ^'uard 
of honour and martial music. Ho found them a 
much finer class of men than the ordinary ne^yroes. 
They saluted him with nmeh i-espect, and in 
every way tried to show their a|)])r(!ciation of 
Ills visit. They addressed him us " Massa PriiuM! " 
and " Massa Kintf's Son," evidently understanding 
the honour due to royalty. Thcii* fiiu; appearance 
and evidence of trroat streii^dh, j>leased tiie Duke 
so much, that he at once ottered them work on 
the new fortifications then hein^' erected on Citadel 
Hill. 'i'liey inunc.'diatel}' declared themselves n(»t 
only willing' to lalxair for tlu; Kin^', hut also 
to give their services M'ithout payment. Pi'ince 
Edward gladly accepted their woi'k, but insisted 
on their rec.'ivin^r compensation, agrreein<,' to <^ive 
them ninepence a day, besides ))rovisions, lodi^dnt^^ 
and clotliin<^'. Sir John Wentwcjrth, in a letter 
dated 2,5th July, iTDf), informed the Duke of 
Portland of the arrival of the Mart)oiis with 
tlu!ir superintendents, Messrs. \V. D. (^uarrell and 
Alexander Oehterlony. These ;L;entIemen were 
appointed, by Lord BaleaiTas, principal commissary 
and dei)uty for the Marocjus, and the money 
appropriated liy the government of Jamaica for 



ill ' ^' ! 

I I 



th(3 support of thoso iu,':,'roi's, was intrusted to 
thoin for expenditure. 

Tlio whole l)oily was soon quartered in tem- 
porary homes. They si^t to work witli ri^ht f^ood 
will on the fortifications then in profjjrcss. The 
new lines of the Citadel were built with rapidity, 
and the Maroon Bastion remains to this day as 
a tnonumont of their industry aiKl skill. 

The Duke of Portland in replyin^f to the 
governor, issuetl instructions to settle them ])er- 
manently in the country, if it could he doTio 
without injury to the colony. The Maroons were 
first (juartered two miles from Halifax ; and several 
estates in Preston, about five miles from the town, 
were purchased for their settlement. The cost 
of these lands and the buildinrfs rc(iuire<l, was 
estinjated at three thousand pounds .sterlinf^. The 
title was vested in the f^'ovenunent of Jamaiou 
Sir John Wentworth sufjijested the escheat of 
another lai'ge tract of land — 16,000 or 18,000 acres — 
about four miles further in the country, in onler 
to grant it for the use of the Maroons. He 
asked for an annual grant of two hundred and 
forty pounds, to be applied in providing religious 
instruction and a school for their benefit. He 
said it would reclaim them to the Church of 
England, and disseminate christian piety, morality 




i iiitrustod to 

ami loyalty amon^' t\\vu\. Ho sout an onl»'r to 
Enj[,'lanJ for many thin«(H tlioy rcquiii'd, among 
which were "forty gross of coat, and sixty gross 
of vest white metal hiittons, strong; device — an 
alligator holding wheat ears and an olive hranch ; 
inscription — Jamaica to the Manjons, 179(1." Accord- 
ing to Sir John, these people were healthy, peace- 
able, orderly and inofl'ensive, and highly delighted 
with the country. "About fifty of them," ho 
says, " slept in my outliouse on the farm, where 
I anj often without a sentry or even locking a 
door or window." He writes that he expects 
to have them comfortaVtly settled at Preston in 
the autumn, and that he is satisfied that they 
will he healthy and proper in this climate, as 
they will have plenty of food, raiment and fuel. 

By the month of October, they had removed 
to the locality provided, and were lodged in the huts 
or small houses which had been built for them. 

Benjamin Gerrish Gray, Esq., was appointed 
chaplain and teacher of the Maroons in the fall 
of 1796. Sir John Wentworth wrote on 2()th 
September, 179G, that Mr. Gray was to be ordained 
on the following Sunday by the Bishop of Nova 
Scotia ; he had received a good education in England, 
and was amiable, discreet and patient. " The shell 
of a large house [afterwards known as Maroon Hall], 




i I il 

|i ■ 

nearly central In the settlement, is ordered to be 
made convenient I'or a chapel, and the second Sunday 
in Octoher I shall open the church by attending 
divine service therein." 

Sir John at first thoiirrht very hirjhly of the 
Mai-oons, and in the letter just (]Uoted Iv says, 
that in conversinf; with the best informed and 
most sensible amonof them, he could not discern 
an\' malice or revenofe in their sentiments, but 
rather tliey re;:(rette(l their war with the people 
of Jamaica and felt that they were only attendinf^ 
to self-preservation in acting as they did. " They 
express to me," he says, "no other anxiety but 
thcii' feai's of beinn; removed. Nothing would create 
suu.i disti'css among them, as to cany them to 
S err.i Loone, nor could they be prevailed upon 
by any ])rrsuasions to return to Jamaica." In the 
s.une K'ofei", written on ■20th September, he says, 
" the Mirooiis ai'e all settled in comfortable, good 
houses : they are remarkably cle;)n in tluMr per.sons, 
houses, clotliing and utensils, and ai'e very health}'." 
Pi'o'isions v,'iTe weekly sei'ved to them, 'i'iiey were 
e>;|)'M't i.i euttinix wood and in rfovidiu'i" the 
wiiilei-'s fuel. r!-on>'i' clothing' w;;s then b, in<T 
pi'''j),iri d i'o" tliem. 

At the time of tlieir settl(.'me?ifc. Sir John 
iiistitute(l ;i, s'liiil court ti") be held bv the two 



comiuisparios, to trv small offences, at which should 
always ho jiresont throe Maroon captains. 

The Asstinlily of Jamaica expended foi-ty-ono 
thousand pounds in transpo)'tin<f and settlini; the 
Maroons in Preston. 'i'ho winter of iTOii-OT was 
very severe. Heavy snow-falls blockaded the I'oads 
and almost filled the woods where the Maroons 
had their houses. Accustomed always to a <,'enial 
climate, the cold and privation told teri'ihly u[i)n 
the colony. The months of the following spring 
were colder and more luickward thnn any since 
the settlement of Halifax. The depressing weather 
made the already discontented Marnotis more so, 
and they clamoured to lie removed to a warmer 
country. 'I'hey much desired to he set.t as 
soldiers to the Cape of Coofl Hope and to India, 
and to he allowed to take their wives and children 
with them. "Cii\eus," they said, "ai-ms a.nd ammuni- 
tion, and put us on shore there, and we will find 
room for oui'selvcs." That is, as .Sii'.Iolin Vv'eiitwdi'tli 
said, they would iii\u'dci" ami phndci- all the 
inhahitants, if they could only livi- in tie woods 
all the year round. 

When the sununer came with returning warmlh 
and cond'oi't, they giev/ more leasonalde and eon- 
tente(l. A^out this time an alarm was caused in 
Halifax ly the approacli of a French scjuadron 






;'i f 

--■0 «n,.ol.„, i„ ,,, ,„,,,^,^ J^y 1^.0 Mnroon., 

Smith ,„„l Ban„ ,,^ "" •^"'' •f"''"»"n, Major, 

were ranko.l « eantl. "' "'"^ ""'"■■» 

among then. M-iior ^. •.. "^ '''""•>' '^''^^ Poetised 
of four „.,.,/X! ; V™^ "'" '''W' '»-^^^^^ 

.»'■'->" Han, t„ which t„o ,.,;""i -"'™' "' 

source of c-eat ., """" ^""' "'^'e the 

H'eat .iniusenicnt to thp nfi. 

"hen ,n tho .,p,.i„^ of ]- . »'"^'"''- 

f""'"- "f the iate Geo.l « ' '"'"" '^'""'"•'"' 

"-- <-»ib- n,o„„.er':.„:r;rr ^^'."- °^ ^--n- 

■•"«"'.".-.h-„ato Maroon. A,, , "'' '" ""-■'^ tho 

-'"'-> .-n Mne Zi "^Tj:' ""'"'' "'-- 
~~~r'~ ;c«;^'tt uniforms nith hio-h 

""'" in tlie same 



The Maroon.s 
them ())>fc;iiiie(I 
f their ranlc. 
'inson, .\[ajor.s 
•-ed for their 
everal others 
L'lts; and all 
l^G renrarded 
I and f?!eiy 
;-e.s.sive eye.s ; 
^vith wJiose 
"i« practi.sed 
3y po.sse.s.sor 
•1 him wifcli 
'IS tlie 

P'veii at 
ieer.s were 
'st admired 

^vere the 

"f Lunen- 
^Jieck the 
ill ways 
'ith high 

"'•'. v„l Ij 
1" the same 

cocked-hats and gold hice, and in every way 
en<leavoured to personate the appearance and 
authority of tlie British officer. 

The cliaplain ar.d schoolmaster who were 
appointed to hiok aftej- their religions traininof 
and secular education, f<)un<l their duties neither 
easy nor successful. Their salaries amounted to 
two hundred and fifty-three pounds sterling per 
annum, besides a glebe-house and separate houses 
on the estate. 

The Maroons were very ignorant of the English 
language, and neither understood nor listened to a 
sermon ; and in spite of their Christian instruction, 
they refused to abandon their habits of polygamy. 

The winter of ]7!)7-98 was a repetition of the 
previous one, bitterly cold with heavy snow-drifts. 
Their firewood was consumed, their potatoes frozen, 
and their ranks thinr.ed by consc(juent illness and 
death. When spring came, disheartenecl by the 
cold and hunger of the past winter, they refused 
to work and gave all the trouble they could to 
those in charge of them. The pleasure that had 
been felt at the establishment of so fine a body of 
men in the township, gave way to f«,'ar that 
it might prove a calamity. Sv-me of the more 
refractory ones were removed to the vicinity 
of Bedford Basin, and the overseers in Preston 




1] M 

!i f 

:( I 



-f-Hl to work !^v^"^7^""^ *■'•- ^''- who 
^"'"•'ission an.l i„ t '""""^''^ ^''^^'n to 

t).em. '^''^ ''^'"^"•- appoir.toa for 

, ^^'' ^-^t of p,ovi,.iin. f„, the ^^ 

'^^-^" ■'^o .,.e,.tfc. that Sir Joi;. vv . "" '"^'^ 

tJuMnselvos. This ] ^^ '"'^''^ ''^"PPort 

^>«^^^''-n tho^ovvn.oi^oF V '' ''■''^^'■'^'^'^'•'^^ ^ 

ported Sir J„! 
'l<'e!ai-o,l that f 
'"ffc to thecl; 

'•'■1 W,.nt-.vort! 

y for tl 


10 c 

ofoiiies, su) 

1 l!l 



'Hi'iiil ..F J. 






^ova Scotii 

inn and rrpay t\ 

uiiaica was 1 

'onnd to 

I- The hHi-isIf 

J CIU' OXp(!|lsC' 



to tl 


'■o of J, 

"^ iiiciiri>0(l 


" tJie two col 

'"^'^'^^'on, and the ah 

;niiaica would 




n Sii- .|„i,,i ^^', 

Oiii.'s a-d to 



'- i'i''^nnd(>r.stiiid 


"' ,i?o\(>ni a- 


'■I'-'cuscfl t.hf J 

"•"'' ••md Coloncd O 



aiiiDiio- t!i(; Ah 

i^r o 

( fost 

o w.'i! 

II Y) )ii,s 

P''iii,n- insiih- 

•'!! h 

''^ aiifchnrit 

'•-'I'l endoi 

Of t;ir difHc'Ult' 

y over tl 




'lis coiniu 


'•^^ Colonel 


■■'' i'eniuiierat 

/' '-I'ld r,>fc, 

'•ne,l to J, 

1!' result 

'on was v()ti,d to 1 


•-"•, ".vhe 

liiii for I 






'" those who 
''<^ them to 
■■I"' I f-'io-lity 
pointe.J for 

■■i''"ons had 
h;i(I H[)|.Iie,I 
ioii.-il funds 
'^ ^npporfc 
''t' contest 


ii.I. The 
'lies, siip- 
'I'l'l, and 
'")nnd to 

''■1- Woillij 


■>t Ifldillr, 

,•• iiisiil). 



to the island.* Mr. Ochterloiiy was left in chai-<re ; 
but .Sir John having' stated that he also fomented 
discord and discontent anionf^ the Maroons, he was 
removed in 1797, and Captain Alexander Howe of 
the Royal Nova Scotia Regiment was appointed to 
take charge, 

Theophilus Chamberlain, Esq., must now appear 
on the scene. It has already been mentioned that 
the township of Preston had been laid out by him, 
and that he had given it the name l)y which it 
was thenceforth to be known. 

Mr. Chambei-lain was born at Northfield, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1787. He took his decree at Yale 
College, and was appointed a minister of the 
Congregational Chnrcli in Connecticut. Pre\io\is to 
the American Revolution, he opened a private Latin 
school in Ijoston, ^L'lssachusetts. 'J'his school was 
advertised in the Boston Chronicle of ^th Scj) 
teinl)er, I7fi8. His commission as a militia ofiicer 
is dated at New York, bt^ing signed and issued by 
Governor rJuy Carleton, who was C(Kiimandei'-in- 
chicf of His Majesty's plantations from the I'^loridas 
t) the Canadas. !]( i)ig one of the Loyalists at llni 
tin)e of the revolution, he and his wife and childi'cn 

*!»ir Jolin at first priiised, and tlieii lli.«i^l){)^()^ i il of lidl, the 
iiecrroe. and tlioii agents. Q.iarrtdl bus lecn dcscrilu d as a s( ii.sililc, 
well-brod gcntlem ii. — A''/. 



<? ;! ii 


i -I 


"J>P"mt."e„t l,v tl,o T ^"""''''"''■-''y ''her l,is 
^'^■«"' V„,.k, .,, ,,,„ ''";■■"'"' ^""' 1'"" f.v.„, 

"-•"- -'Hu,,..., ,, „„ ;„: ;:;:, "~ -.i »o,,„..., 

^overnnient. He I.J.n. ip , ^''^"te*! linn hy fci.e 

'■»l-t«.l t„ him by bl„„,|. 0, tl r , " "■" "'^^ 
AloxanJcr Ho«o «... •>'' '^•''■'*' '-'■'Pt- 

'-■"^' tlK.,r „„■,„•,,,, ,'''*■""" "-''""nff- Besides 

^-.1 nt Pr«t„n on 2.)th Ju,,, is"' • ^''•""'■'"'«'' 
eifrlitli year •*' '•^-*' '" ''■•- c-iglity- 

- favo„,.,a,ly „f L ;-^ ""', -"-' to speak 

VVentu-orti, .,1 a ^r ,""""'"'" '^^ «-ornor 
"I ac first (One u. 

Wor,.l,ippe,l falso ij,„l, .„„! k ""''• " "'"y 

"f Ci.ri..ia„ity, .^ 2::'^^ """7 "•"""-■ 

^"iivuJ m Xova .Scotia." 



I'Ofird the 
^quontly a 

after his 
I'veyor, Jio 
.setth>.l a 
Jiiin from 
I soldiers 
111 I.y the 
'•e.stoM to 

In .Sir 
Iways a 
vus also 
% C'.ipt. 
IS. Ho 
Ml and 






He represented them as the ])ersnniHcntion of arro- 
gance, and cruel in the extreme. Those who were 
in jjositions of authority were most tyrannical to 
the men under them, and at the least oU'ence would 
whip them unmeix-ifnlly. They had stijiulated with 
the Jamaica government to lie allowed to continue 
the same harsh discipline they had always ju-actised 
among their Maroon subordinates, as well as their 
right to entire maintenance in Nova Scotia, before 
thev would evacuate their mountain stronghold in 
that island.* 

During their residence in Nova Scotia, these 
restless negroes were constantly relapsing into idh'- 
ness and discontent. Their complaints were tVe<)uent 
and loud against the dullness and poverty of their 
liomes in Preston. One complained that hr had 


•Compare this statement with tlie articles of peace entered 
into on 21st Deceniher, 17!>"), between the Maroons and (Jen. 
Walpole. (.See Murdoch's History of N. S., vol. Ill, p. ir)()|. To 
these articles Walpole liad to add a secret one. jironnsing lliat the 
Maroons shoidd not ho sent out of Jamaica ; and to this lie was 
obliged to accede on his oath. (Kxtracts from D.illas's //('s/ory o/ 
the Maroons, iu Murdoch's Iliiitory of X. S,, vol. Ill, p. 156). 
Novv, mark, it was in violation of Walpole's promise, that tlie 
negroes were transported to Nova Scotia. Walpole is free from 
blame. He was disguste 1 with the Jamaica assembly's action, and 
with becoming dignity refused a sword m hicii was voted to him for 
his services. — AV. 





I i 



not a well -furnished house and cellar to exercise 
hospitality with ; another that his farm would not 
produce yams, bananas, cocoaiuits (jr cayenne pepper; 
another that there were no wild horrs in the wocjds 
to hunt ; and so on throuifh all the grievances that 
ignoi'ance and an'on^ance could suf^'ij^est. Their liahits 
were vicious, and theii* determination was tf) set 
aside tlu^ restraints of authority. Cock- tij^'h tin <.', 
cai'ds, sm(tkin<;, and j'^oinrj tt) town were their 
favourite anuisements. All these helped them to 
])ass thrcjugh the sununei* with comparative con- 

The wintei" of l7.0!S-f)9, however, was even colder 
than the precedintif ones. TIk; fall of snow was the 
heaviest ever known in Nova Scotia. The Maroons 
wei'e housed, fed and ke[)t warm durino- the 
inclement weather; but their numl)er diminished, 
the weakly ones dropped off, ami the churchj'ard 
on the hill be<xan to fill with their graves. Mr. 
Chaml)erlain taught the children, and still held 
Sunday services among them ; but they made little 
progress in Christianity. They allowed their chil- 
dren to be baptized, l)ut their marriages and 
funerals were comlucted in their own fashitai 
Avith strange ceremonies. They continued refractory 
and rebellious, and were a dead w(;ight on the 
governor's hands. The attending 'heir 



iio oxerciso 
would not 
le pepper ; 
the woods 
Lnces that 
eii' Jia1)its 
IS to set 
('re their 
thciii to 
ive eon- 

n colder 
was the 
n^' the 
s. Mr. 
11 held 
e little 
V chil- 
s and 
ash ion 
II the 

maintenance was ten thousand pounds a year ; and 
the return, constant anxiety and annoyance.* 

At last, at their own earnest entreaties and to 
save the province from ^'reater loss, it was resolved 
to send them to the neoro settlement at Siei'ra Leone, 
the autliorities there bein^ i-eady to receive tliem. 
On 20th January, 1800, Sir John Wentworth writes 
that a Ml". Ko^s was livinrj at Maroon Hall, 
endeavouring- to o-ive the negroes in;ood impressions 
of Sierra Leone, Avheret'j he was to accompany them. 
On 2.Srd Februarv, he writes, that " the Maroons 
are all ready to embark at an hour's notice, except 
two families who say they have enr^mged with Mr 
[William Cottnam] Tonge, and will stay with him." 
"Neither Mr. Tonge nor the Maroons," continues Sir 
John, "shall be suffered to frustrate my instructions 
to send them iill to Africa." These people had 
arrived at Halifax in July, 179G. Li August, IMOO, 
they left for their new home, lessened in numbers 

* III April, 1775), tlie M.irof)na at Proston liaving eviiu^cd a 
mutiiums dispo.'^ition, Sir John Wciitwoftli sent dipt. Solomon, 
Lieut. .MuUer, and fifty men tliete, of the Royal Xova Scotia 
Kegimei.t, and posted tliein near the settlement. Sir John 
complained that sonic person fron) Jamaica lu-d poisoned the minds 
of the Maroons, inducing them not to go to cliuich on Sundays- 
giving them feasts, licpior, liorse-raccs and cock-fights on that 
day— telling them that the King paid everyone for going to church, 
and that they were cheated out of their pay by Sir John and their 
clergymen. (Vide Murdoch's Hialoryof X. S., vol. Hi, p. \'~.]--Ed. 


r^^-, 1 













, I ! ) 

i lilii 



'""' not i.nprovo.1 by tlirir fon- ~T " 

I^'-t'Hton. Five h„ni ! ^'''""^ ''''^'^'^"^« '"« 

' '»<- 'lunai'ori 1111,1 tiet. 

Ama So, Africa A). ''."'>-""'•■ I'-'ft in tl,e 
four ha,l ,l,.s„,.tc.,l i„ ,„. , """""'"• " '« ™i,l that 

o*.;o. after „„..,,,,,;;:;'-^-'^^^^ 

pounds by the islan.I of T • ^ t'lousun,! 

»-vo,utt,,o..,,j,::i: :;;:-^ After ti. 

■■'■«""™ of t.,'e p,„ :. aCT'™' ™»"*r ti.o 

<=W„etor«.as,„„el,pra,V,r, ■"""""'"'""<' 

■« active a„,| i,„,-,., ' , '■*' "■"■''' ■'''«'^-"' "f 

eonfi,ie„t of t':r;:r'r;' "■"■■'■"- 

in.Iepen.lonco Tl.; • "^^ J^'hIous of 11,^}^ 

^•v«'-' -nanif:.;: i:;c.t'tr '■"''' "'"'■'• 

Before closing t|,„ „ ' 

^rtticrs, it „iii 1,0 i„ n,., "' """"-• -^"""y 

«"-! I'i-story of t|,„ , "^ "" " «'^-° '» ■'«eriptio„ 

-"-a n:ra„.i:\::::,: 7;;- 

--. - n,„re t,,.. «,, .car;;: ti',:,; 



known as " Muroon Hull." In writini,' of townships 
liko Dnrtniontli and I'l'cslon, which have such a 
hick of past traditions and pivscnt interest, the 
liistory of whost^ inhaltitants can he coni{)rehen(h.'d 
in the individual rt.'fi'ain, "I was horn, 1 live<l, I 
died," — a I>"^« '^'" two to th(3 memory of such an old 
place as this, will not surely he inapi)roi)riato or 

The house was huilt, in j)art, as a sununer 
residence in 1702 by Francis Green, Ksi[., son of 
Hon. Benjamin Green. Tht; latti r was horn in 
Salem, Massachusetts, in 171.'}. H<; was l)i'ou;4ht U|) as 
a merchant in Boston, hut afterwards accomjianied 
Genei'al I'epporrell to Louishourji^, and hecame secre- 
tary to the expedition. After the captui'e of that 
})lace, he remained there as ffovernment secretary 
until Cape Breton was restored to the French in 
174!). He then removed with his family to Halifax, 
and was made one of Governor Cornwallis's first 
council. He was afterwards appointed treasurer of 
the province, and on the death of Governor Wilmot 
in 17G(), w^as made administrator of the <^'overnment. 
He died at Halifax in 1772. 

Francis Green was sheriff of Halifax. Having 
ohtained an estate innnediately adjoining Preston,* 

*I tliiiik the land on wLich Maroon Hall was huilt, was 
inohiilod in a grant of 2000 acres to Hon. Benjamin (ireen, dated 
'29th Dec, 1767 [Vu/e Grant Book 9, p. .S8 ) If not, it wa8 part of 
a grant to J. Wisdom and E King, dated 22nd Nov. 1785. — Ed. 


1.0 !;"'- iiM 




1.25 1.4 11^ 

^ 6" 






^ '> 









(716) 873-4503 





he built a house on one of the finest situations in 
the place — a I road, circular elevation, commanding 
a wide view of the country around and the ocean 
beyond. During Mr. Green's residence near Preston, 
his daughter Susanna was married by the Rev. Mr. 
Weeks, the first rector of the parish, to Stephen 
Hall Binney, Esq. This gentleman was a brother to 
the grandfather of the late lamented Bisliop of Nova 
Scotia, and grandfather of the Rev. George William 
Hill, late rector of St. Paul's Church, Halifax. When 
Preston was chosen as a settlement for the Maroons, 
Mr. Green's property, with the rest of the district, 
was purchased by the government for their accomo- 
dation. The house, which wps only a limited 
building for summer use, was re-constructed and 
eniu,rged at the expense of the government of 
Jamaica, and the result was a square, double, two- 
storied house, containing ten rooms each with three 
doors and four windows — capital ventilators when 
the north-east wind swept round the old Hall, and 
the cutting blizzards of winter piled the snowdrifts 
against the casements. Colonel Quarrell and 
Mr. Ochterlony lived there during the time they 
superintended the Maroons. A room in the Hall 
was sometimes used as a chapel and sometimes as 
a school ; and it was there that the dances and other 



entertainments were given, at which the hlack 
gentry and their wives ilisphiye<l their West Indian 

When the Maroons evacuated Preston, the hinds 
were again at tlie disposal of government. Maroon 
Hall with its thousand acres of upland and forest, 
was sold, on 8th October, 1801, for £655, to Sanniel 
Hart, Esq., a wealthy Halifax merchant of Jewish 
origin. Here, he with his fajuily spent the summer 
months of every year. They wei-e gay and fashion- 
al»le people, and Maroon Hall knew its merriest 
days during their occupancy. Dinners and dances, 
at which the army and navy with the aristocracy of 
of Halifax were entertained, were of fre(juent occur- 
rence in this luxurious and hospitable home. After a 

•The following description of Maroon Hall and its land, is 

taken from an advertisement in the A'. .S'. Royal Gazfttt, lOih Sept. 

1801. This advertisement announced that tlie Hall, together with 

the whole of the remaining Maroon property, would be sold by 

Charles Hill, auctioneer, at the Went worth Tavern, on 28th Sept., 

1801, in order to close the affair. Twenty-four houses with other 

buildings, lands, etc., in Preston, were described and oflTered for 

Bale. The sale of Maroon property extended from 12th Dec , 1800, 

until 2nd Nov., 1801 ; total proceeds, £0,792 Bs. 3d. (Soe MS, 

Records, vol. 419). 

"Maroon Hall, an excellent house, in an elevated tituation, with an exten- 
live vitw of the sei-shore, the hoiise in 40 fept hy 40, two Htor.v hiyh, four well 
flniuhed convenient rooniao'i a floor.a cellar under the whole, with a neverfullinif 
well of water in it, a barn 40 feet by 2.'>, and a (rood stable iidJoiniriK, a store 40 
feet by 30, a sheep hovel, fowl-house, and other out-houaes, it will be sold with 
eight hundred acres of land, a fcood i>ro|M>rtioM of which i^t excellent hardwood, 
and twenty-flve acres of the land is under improvement, frnni which has been cut 
near twenty ton of hay this year, besides oats, potatoes, &c. Also a ganlen 
ooDsistlnK of an acre of urround, well set with fruit trees, such as apples, pears, 
cherries, pluini, Jto. "—£((. 



"5' i 

i , l^ 

lew haj)py years, however, reverses came. Business 
difficulties resulted in Mr. Hart's failure; the greater 
part of his handsome fortune was swept away. 
Its loss and the embarrassment which ensued, prayed 
upon his mind until mental depression eniled in 
insanity. His family consisted of his wife, Rehecca* 
one son, and two daufjhters. The latter married, 
and the son went abroad to seek his fortune. The 
unhappy father, in the absence of a hospital where 
his distress might have been alleviated, was taken 
to the Hall and confined there under the charge of a 
man .servant* In the house where he had dispensed 
his hospitality so generously, he was a miserable 
prisoner, tortured by all the cruel illusions of an 
unsound mind, and often so violent that he had to 
be chained to iron stanchions, the marks of which 
remained upon the floor as long as the house stood. 
After a year or two of terrible mental misery and 
great bodily suffering, he died at Maroon Hall on 
Wednesday morning, .3rd October, 1810, aged sixty- 
three years. 

The house and property were again in the 
market. From its being within easy reach of 
Halifax, its beautiful situation, its broad fields and 

* On 28th June, 18()9, a commission deciiled that N5r. Hart 
was insane, and so had been for three weeks then last past. ( Vide 
Acts, IS09, cap. xvi).-AW. 

! I 

i:!:ll I! 




well wofxled pastures, it was considered to be a 
desirable purchase either for a fanner or a country 
gentleman. It was a quarter of a mile to the 
east of the south-eastern end of Lake Loon, and on 
the summit of a hill which commanded a very 
extensive view of the surrounding district. The 
place had been much improved during Mr. Hart's 
tenure. The lane leading fron\ the highway to 
the house, was set on both sides with stately trees. 
A great spreading willow stood on each side of 
the gate; vines and roses trailed over the porches; 
an orchard was well stocked with young trees ; and 
the grass land yielded an abundant crop. 

The next purchaser was John Prescott, Esq. He 
was the eldest son of Dr. Jonathan Prescott, and 
brother of the late Hon. Charles R. Prescott, so well 
known as a horticulturist in King's County, Nova 
Scotia. Dr. Prescott came from Boston, Massa- 
chusetts, in 1758, and settled in Chester, Lunenburg 
County.* He had five sons ; one, Joseph, was a 

* Jonathan Prcscott'a name appears in a hat of the inhabitant! 
of Halifar, dated July, 1752. (See Sflectiona from Public Docu- 
menta of N. S., i>. 654). Dr. Akins, in a footnote, tays that he 
was the "father of the late Hn. Charles Prescott." If this is 
correct, Mrs. Lawsou must be wrong when she sa)s that he came 
from Boston in 1758. As, however, that lady's mother was a 
daughter of John Prescott, her strttement should not be questioned. 
The family, I be'.ieve, claim relationship with Prescott the histo- 
rian. — Ed. 



J ' ' 



doctor in the Unitod States armj', and afterwards a 
physician in Halifax. The other sons followed 
merchandise, except the eldest, who purchased Maroon 
Hall in 1811. He had been engaged for some years 
in farming at Zinks Point, Chester. He removed 
with his family to Preston and lived there until 
1821, in which year his death occurred. 

Soon after this event, the property was again 
sold. The purchaser this time was a retired military 
officer, Lieutenant Christian Conrad Katzmann of 
H. M. fiOth Ritles. He was born in Hanover, Saxony, 
on 18th August, 1780, and graduated from Gottingen 
University. He had been educated for, and vva.s 
about to take orders as a Lutheran clergyman. It 
was then the period of the Peninsular War, when 
every man was more or less actuated by military 
zeal. The King was making efibrts to raise an army 
in Gern)any which afterwards was known as the 
Kiuix's (Jerman Legion. A connniss'on in an English 
regiment was olieied to each person who would 
secure a certain numbei* of men for enlistment in 
the King's service. Mr. Katzn\ann secured the 
required number and went to London. He obtained 
a commission in the 60th Ritles, and served the King 
in several engagements in which that regiment was 
under tire. When the war was over, the Ritles, 


)j ! 



•lifter a brief rest in England, were ordered to 
tlie West Indies and subsecjuently to Halifax. Mr. 
Katzinann was stationed with his battalion at 
Annapolis for two years. At the end of that time, 
he went on half-pay and bought Maroon Hall. 
He married Martha, daughter of John Prescott, 
the late owner of the property.* The exposure 
and hardships of his military life had shattered his 
health, and he found farming as unsuitable as it was 
unprofitable. He, however, remained in possession 
until his death, which occuri'ed on Friday morning, 
15th December, 1843. He was then in his sixty- 
fourth year. The farm was held by his family until 
1856. The house had been unoccupied for some 
time, and in June of that year it was burned to the 
ground. The cause of the fire was never known. 
It may have been the result of incendiarism, or of 
sparks falling on the dry roof from fires which were 
raffing in the woods to the rear of the house at that 
time. Whatever the cause, the old Hall with all its 
memories and traditions, was consumed and became 
a thing of the past. It was the last landmark 

*Mr8. William Lawaou, n^e Mary Jane Katzmann, the writer 
of this history, was their secontl daughter. She was born at the 
old Hall. Her mother died on 17th November, 1871, aged eighty 
years. Her father is ranked as an ensign in the Army List ; com- 
mission dated 1814, half-pay 1822. — Ed. 









(1 M 

i 1 


11 5 



n ;;! 

»> ■ 



which told of Preston's early prosperity and historic 
associations. For more than half a century it had 
stood as a preat sentinel, breasting the storm and 
basking in the sunshine. Birth and marriage had 
gladdened it, death had sanctified it. Strangers 
passed by and inquired its story. The old 
Maroon traditions were revived, with memories of 
its later owners. Much of interest hung round its 
gray walls and fair, smiling lanJacape. All this is 
over ; " the place that knew it once, shall know it 
no more for ever !" 

m ■*' 

~ I'M 






DURING the engagements at the time of the 
last war between En^jland and the United 
States 1812-14, several officers were taken 
prisoners and sent to Halifax for safe keeping. 
They were generally quartered on the eastern side of 
the harbour, and many of them who were on parole 
lodged in the farm-houses in or near Preston and 
Dartmouth.* They were allowed perfect liberty of 
action, except in the matter of crossing tho ferry. 
Halifax being the only point from which they could 
hope to escape, this neceseary restraint was imposed 
upon them. They were all quiet, gentleman-like 
men, and much esteemed by the persons with whom 
they associated. They were visited and entertained 
by the farmers and their families, and in return for 
so much kindness, made love to all the pretty 

• Several of these prisoners hired, from the first Nathaniel 
Russell, a room in the liouse where Mary Uussell had heen killed 
(see page 12.5). Tliey piirchased their own fuel and provisions, but 
their baking was done by Mrs. Russell. To pay for this, they 
broke up a piece of land and suriounded it with stone-walls.— AV. 


■ ■ .11 




•1' ,1 



i; ' 

11 > 

girls in the villaffe. The h)ve tmikin^' in some cases 
cntled ill en^ageinonts to many. The prisoners* 
hearts, however, were always chaHnfj ajjainst exile, 
and turning homeward with longing and hope. 
The war at length ended, peace came, and the 
captives were set free. " All things come to those 
who wait." The American officers went hack to 
their homes. The saying, however, did not hohi 
good in the case of the deserted Preston giiOn. They 
waite<], hut they waited in vain ; for their lovers 
never returned to fulfill the promises made in the 
rosy twilight or under the glow of the inconstant 


The goldern era in the history of the people of 
Preston, was the period during which the prisoners, 
both French and American, remained among them. 
Nearly all of these men had mimey, and they 
spent it freely among the villagers with whom they 
lived. Their departure was very much regretted, 
and with them Preston and Dartmouth lost many 
good and appreciative friends. 

After the trouble experienced from the settle- 
ment of, and provision for the Maroons at Preston, 
it might have been supposed that the result of that 
attempt at colonizing the blacks would have deterred 
the government of the province from any similar 
undertaking in the future At the conclusion, 



liowcver, of the second Americnn war, 1812-14, a 
great many Mucks were allowed to take ret'upje 
on the British fleet blockading the Chesapeake and 
other harbours. Most of these people were after- 
wards disend)arked at Halifax.* The Maroon lanrls 
in Preston had been partly sold by Governor 
Wentworth, but the unsold portion was claimed 
by the provincial government and apportioned for 
the settling of this body of negroes. Preston was, 
therefore, again selected as a home for another dusky 
colony, and this it remains until the present day. 
Some of these later itnmigrants went to Hammond's 
Plains, through which a road had just been surveyed ; 
others settled on the Windsor Road, and at Beech 
Hill on the St. Margaret's Bay Road. About three 
hundred were placed in the old township of Preston, 
where thej' inhal)ited the liuts, and occupied the 
ground once peopled V)y the Maroons. They were a 
wretched class of settlers. On the plantations of 

*Oii Ist September, 1814, H. M. brig Jancur, arrived with a 
transport at Halifax, from Chesapeake liay, with several hundred 
of the black refugees. The governor sent a message to the assembly 
on 24th February, 1815, suggesting that they be settled upon 
forest lands. H« spoke of the decrepid age, helpless infancy and 
unavoidable sickness, to be found among them. On 6th May, a 
number of these people were placed on Melville Island, North 
West Arm, and ordered to be vaccinated. On Ist April, the 
assembly addressed the governor, objecting to their introduction 
into the province. — Ed. 




iii . 

tlieir owners in Virginia and otlier of tlie Southern 
States, ull tlieir wants ha<l l>een provided for, and 
conseciuently they were unac(|uainted with the 
thrift or the reward of hil)our. Freedom made 
them idle and miserable. The government was 
obliged to allow them rations during the winter 
and otherwise to provide for their existence. For 
many years they experienced all the 
incidental to idleness and improvidence, and were a 
constant drain upon the benevolence of their white 
neighbours. In January, 1S2I, ninety of them 
— more shiftless and discontented than the rest, — 
were sent to Trinidjul. The rest remained in 
Preston to fight the battle of life as best they 
couKl. Their weapons were not always effectual, 
but they lived and increased. 

In later years their circumstances have materially 
improved, and many of them are now thrifty and 
comfortable. With the chanj^es of time, new methods 
of making a livelihood have opened to them. Many 
of the men are employed in variou.s gold mines in 
the country, and in other industries, such as wood- 
cutting and farming. The women in summer 
gather the wild fruits and flowers of the woods, and 
bring them to the market. The sight there, so 
familiar, is always amusing. They are seen scjuat- 
ting round the open space allotted to their use in 



tlio Halifax grccn-iiinrkct, with tln-ir iniscclliuicous 
pith('riii<,'s for hiiIu, clintt*'!!!!},' like inoiikcys, anil 
like tlwiii <'nj'>yiii^' tlir warmth aiitl plfasantnrss of 
suiiiiiH'r. Hnioiiis, haskcts, tiihs, clothes-props, pcii- 
stii'ks, hop- ami licau-poh's, rustic s«'ats aixl llowtT 
Koxf's. iii.ikc up part of their various stores. (Ji-eat 
liaskets of inayliowers au<l mosses nw hroULfht in 
• lin'ini,' early sprin;^. Some of their houtpiets are 
arranpfj with a pMxl deal of taste. From the 
middle of May until late in autunni, ferns of every 
kind are carried on their heads from door to door, 
while others of these plants till hari'ows in the 
market, oi" else stand in hoxes inad(! of the hai'k 
of th(! birch- and iir-trees, fjreeninjj the sidewalks 
altout. Jn early winter, the spruce and luMulock 
trees are laitl under contrihution. Wreathes and 
branches, Christmas-trees, Ion*,' festoons of ever- 
green for decorating', dyed passes, autumn leaves, 
sumach berries, — in short anythinf^j that can 1)0 mailo 
available for sale,, is brought to market by the ilusky 
vendors. They gather u ^'ood deal of money by 
these ventures; for such articles cost nothinji^ to 
produce, only ro<{uirin^ the labour of jratherin<; 
and curriafje. All of them have special patrons an<l 
friends upon whom they can depend in times of 
want and trouble. A few of them are celebrities 
in their way, among whom we may instance 





I !,;Ji 





Ir. ' 
I ^' 

Fanny Gross, Sponcor Wiudor, Louisa Kane, George 
Lanihert, Mrs. Turner and Sarah Brown. 

Tli()U<(!» very far from hoinfj a moral people, yet 
they are most reli<^ious, and di'li(,'ht in f^oithering 
for worship and preachinf^. Moetinf>--houses abound 
in their settlements. They have a native clergy 
whose ministrations they receive with gladness. 
Nearly all of them belong to the " Baptist persua- 
sion." A " baptizing," as they term it, is the gala 
event of the summer. Then, by the side of some 
lake or river, hundreds of gaily dressed coloured 
brethren and sisters collect. Numerous visitors of 
their own race, from Halifax and Dartmouth, lend 
eclat to tlie scene. From five to Hftv candidates, 
according to the fervour of the revival season, 
dressed in white with napkins round their heads and 
otherwise properly vested, are plunged under the 
water and thencefortli are received into fellowship. 
The ceremony is usually performed by .some black 
ecclesiastic. Afterwards, prayers and addresses are 
made, and when these are over, the visitors are 
feasted at the houses of their neighbours and friends, 
and the day is made one of general rejoicing and 
festivity. Before such events, there is a great 
demand for articles of dress : para.sols, hoop-skirta, 
sash-ribbons, veils, and fans, are all apparently 

& ^! 



necessary adjuncts of the ceremcri}' >vhicli t!iey 
fre(|uentlj^ speak t.f as " tlie dipping." 

John Burton, a good old Baptist minister in 
Halifax, for many years took chai'ge of their 
sj)iritul affairs and constantly ministered to them. 
He was succeeded by the Kev. Richard Pi-est<»n, 
a coloured man. Jolin Crawley, Benson Smithers, 
James Thomas and others have since heen among 
their leadji's. At the present time they have no lack 
of a native ministry. Like St. Paul, through the 
week " they labour with their own hanrls," and on 
Sundays, in black garments and white ties, preside 
over the " meetin." 

When a member dies, he is buried ; but the 
funeral sermon and exercises are postponed to a, 
more convenient season. This ]X)stponement is 
generally until the summer, when times are better 
and the mourners are more jirepared to entertain 
their friends. Sometimes the services last all dny, 
with only an intermission for dinner, and the virtues 
of the deceased are commemorated b\- various 
speakers. In their addresses, the ludicrous prevails 
largely over the pathetic. Tropes and figures 
relating to time and eternity, to archangels and the 
departed brother, are mixed up with a freedom most 
startling to those unaccustomed to such eloquence. 


I ■ 




■TV ' 



In , 


These coloured people are all fond of music, and 
many of them sinp^ very sweetly. As they follow 
their dead from house to churchyard, tliey chant 
funeral hymns alon(]f the way, and the low, sweet wail 
of the melody floating upon tlie air as they march 
slowly behind their departed neighbour, is very 
tender and touching. 

So many of these African people live in the old 
township, that the place seems inseparably connected 
with them ; and in the minds of many it is always 
so associated. The natives proper of Preston, how- 
ever, always consider them an excnsence, and are not 
inclined to give them free right to the soil. Very 
few of their houses stand (m the main road, their 
settlements being more in the woods and near sti'eets 
which they have cut out for themselves. Their cabins 
ai'e generally m.ade of logs "chinked ^^ith moss." All 
of them have more or less land under cultivation, in 
which they raise potatoes and other light crops. 
Many of the women make good dcnnestic servants, 
and the better class of the men are often employed 
as waiters in hotels and steamers. Schools of 
varying efficiency have always been established 
among them ; and in the march of improvement, the 
poor ignorant coloured settlers of Preston are learn- 
ing something of the civilization and culture of 
the age. 


The soil of Preston is generally poor and unpro- 
ductive, an.l in many parts barren and stony. AH 
portions require heavy top-dressing in order to 
produce even an ordinary crop. The grass land is 
good, and no douht more scientific farming than is 
practiced by its present owners, would insure a 
much better retui-n. 

The natural beauty of the country is very great. 
In winter the scene is bare and rugged, but in 
summer the place is charnnng— full of repose and 
health. An alternation of hills and low wooded 
plains, makes the landscape very pleasing in the 
latter season. Nature then fills the woods with 
fragrance and bloom ; the roadsides are lined with 
Linnosa and ferns, even the pastures are gay with 
sweet wild flowers. About two miles to the south, 
the Atlantic stretches out in grandeur, where ships 
may be discerned passing to an<l from Halifax 
Harbour. There are a number of beautiful lakes in 
the township— some half hidden by the trees cluster- 
ing around their borders, others o])en to view and 
touching the very ei]ge of the highway. The 
white lilies sleeping among then- green leaves, make 
the blue of these waters more intense. The air is 
sweet with the fragance of field and meadow, and 
fresh and invigorating from the sea breeze which 




■'11'.'-^ ■ 'l. ^ 





k'v!' •■' 



j -t 1 



mingles with the scent of the clover. There are 
numerous pleasant resorts in the olil township, and 
those who know the place can tell of many delight- 
ful walks am' quiet sunny nooks where one can 
meditate and rest. Three or four roads lead across 
the country to Cole Harbour. They are all charming 
woodland ways. One, especially, leading along the 
borders of the Salmon River until it empties into 
the sea, is full of beauty, particuliarly in June when 
the woods are overflowing with bloom and the air is 
filled with the song of birds. When all Nature is 
rejoicing in the fulness of life, nowhere does .she 
scatter beauty with n more prodigal hand than in 
the quiet woods and valleys of Preston. 

The first church on the eastern side of the 
harbour of Halifax, was built in Preston, at the 
expense of the government, during the occupancy 
of the Maroons. The parish was called the 
Parish of St. John. The church was erected on 
the top of a very high hill, known until this 
day as Church Hill, a little more than six and a 
half miles from the town of Dartmouth.* It was 

* This church was about seventy rods east of Salmon River, 
and about three-quarters of a mile northward of the present 
church. The "Governor's (Wentworth's) Farm." was some 
distance eastward of the old church, and southward of Long Lake. 
Both were on the north side of the road.— Ed. 


suppose<l to be in the centre of the township. Tlie 
Rev. Mr Weeks t was the first officiating c!e.-fry- 
nian. He lived in Halifax, hut went to Preston to 
nmrry, baptize and bury those who required liis 
services. He sometimes held divine service in the 
church, but the ministrations were not wai-ndy 

Round tlie church, a large piece of land was set 
apart and consecjated as a buiying-ground. TJiere 
in the quiet solitude of nature, "the rude forefathers 
of the hnmlet sleep." The old German settlers, the 
disban(l • soldiers, the restless Maroons, the <food grey 
hea- . Theophilus Chamberlain, John Prescott, 
Tobias Miller, James Money, and many others, lie 
underneath the sod of this quiet old churchyard 
which the storms an<l suns of nearly a hundred years 
have whitened with snow or made green with 
summer verdure. Sweetbrier and other spreading 
shrubs still Nourish, planted there by loving 
hands which aie now folded beneath the turf of 
other churchyards. All are waiting for the time 
wlun the angels shall reap the harvest from God's 
acres so thickly set evei-yudiere in this great worM 
of His. 

tTlns was the Rev. Joshua Wingate Weeks, M. A., one of 
the exiled clerj-ymen of tiie revolution, a sketch of whose life will 
be foun.l in the Rev. A. W. Eaton's Church of England in Xom 
ico/io (pp.l84-IS(J).— £",/. 

\ 'ik-'t'' i.i' 



pv ; 

After Mr. Weeks left this part of the diocese, 
the Rev. Benjamin Gcrrish Gniy attended to the 
spiritual wants of Preston. He too resided in 
Halifax, and found his parishioners on the other 
side of the harbour neither zealous nor appreciative. 
It is said that Sunday after Sunday the parson 
appeared at the church, hut the door was locked 
and the congre<]fation reinaineil at home. 

As time went by, the old church on the hill, from 
want of care on the part of the people, became 
greatly out of repair, and it was thought that the 
services would be better attended if the place of 
worship were brought nearer to the families in the 
more settled parts of the parish. Accordingly, 
between the years hS22 and 1S28, all that could be 
used of the old frame-work and fittings, was removed 
to another part of the township where a lot had 
been set aside for church purposes. The highest 
hill in the place had been chosen for the first 
erection of a place of worship ; the second church 
was built at the end of a long swamp, in a low 
sheltered spot about a quarter of a mile to the 
eastwai'd of Maroon Hall. It was consecrated in 
1.S2S by Bishop Inglis. Hero, fi'om this time, the 
Rev. Mather Byles DesBrisay ministered occasionally 
until his death in 1HS4<. 


The clmrcli was very rough and without orna- 
ment or even comfort. The narrow chancel witli 
its phiin wooden tahle,— rarely if ever used for holy 
eonununioii,— the barepulpitand readinrr-desk, would 
have suited the most primitive conception and taste. 
Hi_f,ddy ritualistic in one point alone, was the order- 
ing of the sittings. The men sat on one side, and the 
women on the other; prece<lent and goo.l manners 
alike forbidding any infringement of this rule 
during divine worship. In 1845, an effort was made 
to nuikp. the building a little more modern and 
church-like. The interior was altered and improved. 
The seats were arranged so as to face the reading- 
desk, not each other as before. A spire was added, 
and the little church l>ecajue a picturescpio object, 
rising up among the evergreen trees, a witness and a 
guardian of the faith. In the spring of lHi9, the 
country suffered for want of rain. LarL'e tires 
sprang up everywhere in the woods, and sweeping 
through the dry leaves and crackling brushwood, 
touched the trees which sheltered the little church. 
They and it were soon hopelessly ablaze. Neither 
man nor water was at hand, and the second chui'ch 
in the parish was soon, like its predecessor, a thing 
of the past. 

Through many losses and hindrances, Preston has 
been loyal to the church, and in the course of a year 




or two, another build int^ was elected for the worship 
of (fod. It is at the junction of two roa<ls, one 
leadinf]r eastward across the Salmon llivor throufjh 
the low valley land, the other runninfjf northward 
to the old road which winds up the steep ascent of 
Church Hill* The situation is very pretty. The 
green, sunny slope on which the buiidin^f stantls, is 
now useil as the villa((e churchyard. The church is 
more modern and appropriately arran^i^ed than any 
former effort in the parish. Services, however, are 
not hold as frequently as is desii-ed. In the .sum- 
mer, William Silver, E.s(|., who has a residence in 
the immediate vicinitv, acts as lay-reader. The 
sunday-school is also under his supervision. The 
rector of Dartmouth is still in chai'i,'e of the parish, 
and from liim the people ex))ect the private as well 
as the public ministrations of the church. 

* This third church is to tlie west of the Siiliiion River. 
Thtiophihis t'hainherlain lived not far to the iiortlnvartl, and 
on the west side of the road wliioh runs to meet the liighway 
whioli goes over Church Hill. Tiie second c'lurch was on the 
southern side of the road which loads through tho Long Swamp 
between the present place of worship and the hill on which stood 
Maroon Hall. The present church is therefore to the eastward 
of the second one, — Eil. 

i 'W 





IT may l.e well now to go biick to the names of 
tlie oi'i^nnnl {xmntees of the township, and ^ive 
some details with re«,Mnl to a few of those who 
remained in possession of the land. 

Theophilus Chamherlain, Es(i., has alroa<ly l)een 
spoken of on page 171, in the <lirterent offices of 
deputy -surveyor, ami agent, cliajilain and teacher of 
the Maroons. He afterwards purchased a number of 
lots situated in Preston. He sold at jnihlic auction 
part of the Maroon estate which he had houirht for 
one hundred and seventy ])ounds, and which he held 
by deed from 8ir John Wentworth, given in the year 
1801. He took part in occasional surveys, and lived 
on his farm until his deatli on 20th July, 1.S24, in 
the eighty-eighth year of his age. He had several 
sons. Oidy two of these married and settled in the 
province. One of these, John Cliamberlain, also 
a deputy-surveyor, generally resided in Preston or 
Dartmouth, and left a son, Theophilus Chamberlain, 

who still lives in Halifax. Tl 

le o 


son w 


remained in the province, was James M. Chamberl 






.'(( » ' 




st^ • , 



1 / 







He for iiiiiny years was a irKsrchant in Halifax, and 
goiionilly sp'Mjt tlio suimmT months on his farm at 
Prost(;n. Hti h'ft three sons, one of wliom is William 
Chamherlain, a clerk in the Halifax post-oHice. To 
tho hitter's kinchiess T am indebted for much of the 
al)ove famil}' information. 

Mr. Chamberlain's 3'ounijest dau^^hter married 
the late William N. Silver, Esfj., founder of the well- 
known Halifax estahlishinent which is still carried 
on in the same name. He was the father of our 
respected townsman William C Silver. This gentle- 
man was born in Preston, and he still retains a warm 
affection for the home of his boyhood. For many 
years he has made his summer residence near the 

banks of the Salmon River, a broad, blue, placid 
stream oncj famous for salmon and trout. It was 
cropped most thoroughly by the sportsmen of the 
garrison some thirty or forty years ago. 

William Jor(hin, who married a daughter of 
Francis Mullock, lived with his family for a number 
of years at Preston. Both he and Mullock were 
among the first proprietors of the township. Jordan's 
son, William, entered the navy * in 1H13 and dis- 

• A query mark is inserted in lead pencil after the word navy, 
doubtless by Dr. Akins. Jordan may have been in tho army. In 
au old plan which I have seen, a Jordan's house ia shown to the 
eastward of Church Hill. — EJ. 




tin^'uisliod Iiiiiisclt' at (')istiiio, a fort on tla- east side 
of the Penobscot. Me was the bearer of iiMj)ortaiit 
dispatches to the pjovernor of Nova Scotia, and 
throu^di him nii^dit have had [jrefernient and risen in 
the service, l»ut he preferred the stii^'nation of 
Preston to a sailor's life. He niurried, had a lar<^e 
family, and settled down as a mechanic or common 
labourer in the v^illatfe. 

Preston is the birthplace of two of the most 
distinffuislied sailors in the Hritish navy — Admiral 
Pliilil> Westj)hal and Sir (ieor^e Au<,Mi.-,tns Westphal, 
both bons of George Westpiial, Es((., a retired (iiM-man 
officer, and one of the Hrst ^'rantees and settlers in 
the township of Preston. He was of Hanoverian 
descent, his ancesters bein^ the Counts von Westj)hal, 
per.son.s of some note in their own country. 

The eldest son, Philip, was born in the year 17<S2. 
His early boyhood was spent amon^j the ^recni woods 
and by the broad hikes of Preston. As early as 
1794, he entered the navy under the auspices of 
the Duke of Kent, as a first-class volunteer on board 
the friirate L'Om'UU. He served twelve months in 
that ship on the North American and West Indian 
coast. Afterwards he joined th(; Asia under the 
command of Captain Murray, and wasarjain employed 
in North America luitil the end of KSOO. Ho then 
became master's mate on board the Blduche, and in 


iiisumv OK riiKSTos. 

her took part in the battlo of Coponli i;,'i>n on the 
2ntl April, ISOl. Threo days at'tt^rwanls ho was 
appointofl to a licuttMumcy, and was traiisfcrreil to 
the Defiance, tln<;ship of Sir Thomas (Jravcs. Ho 
was next appoint(Ml to the A)nnzn)\, and in her saw 
active service in the Mediterranean ; after which ho 
accompanied Lord Nelson to the West Indies in 
search of the allied Heets of France and Spain. In 
LS()(), he took jiart in a lonf,' ti;^'ht which resulted in 
the capture of two of the enemy's vessels. He after- 
wards served on the coasts of France and Spain. 
In 1S12, he was ma<le tivst lieutenant of the Junmn, 
and ajjain served with honour on the North American 
statiim. In 1815 he was transferred to the Albion, 
under Sir George Cockburn, and was soon promoted 
to the rank of commander. His last appointments 
were to the frigates Warspite. and Kent. He was 
jnade a captain in 1830, and in 1847 was admittefl 
to an out-pension in Greenwich Hospital. He 
obtained Hag rank in 1856, and became an admirril 
on the retireil list in 1805. His wife wa.s a daujrhter 
of a Mr. Davis. The latter was a Welshman who 
held a position in the commissariat ileparttnetit and 
who went with one of the regiments to settle some 
Indian ti'ouViles at St. John, N. B. Davis Point on 
the St. John River, is named for him. He had three 
sons, all in the navy, and two daughters. Ellen, the 



«lilor (hin^'litor, marriod Cn\tt. John McXal», of tlio 
Novn Scotia Kcucililcs, tlic t'litlit-r of the widow of 
the lute Ifon. Joseph Ifowo; and Francos, tho 
youn<,'t'r, man-iod I'hilip Wcstphal. Klh'ii was horn 
on Hth Ffhruary, 1777, ujid died on 2f>th Novem- 
ber, }H')H. She is huritid in tho public cemetery, 

At tlie time of his death, Afhnind Westphal was 
the oldest eommissionefl officer in Her Majesty's 
navv. H(> lived for s(;veral vi'in's at BembridL'O 
House, Ivyde, Isle of Wif^ht, where ho died on tho 
KJth March, ISSO, aj^ed ninety-ei<^ht years. lie left 
i>o chiMren. 

(Jeori^e Aufjustus Westphal, the second son, had 
even a nioi-e distinjLfuishe(l career. He was born in 
17N5. Like his lirother, he entered the navy at a 
\evy early a^'o in 17D8,* under the auspices of the 
Duke of Kent. For a time lie served on the North 
American station. After, he joined the Vidori/, 
which bore Nelson's titxfr, and in her took j)art in the 
glorious battle of Trafal<,^ar, where he was severely 
wounded. He laid in the next berth to the dying 
hero, whose la.«it moments ho witne.ssed. In 1*^00, 
he was made lieutenant, and was em))loyed on the 

* Rev. G. \V. Hill in Nova Scotia and Nova Rcotian^ (Halifax, 
1858, p. 29) says that 180;J was the year when lie entered the 
ravy. — Ed, 


¥:\. ' ^ 





North American and West Indian station, and 
Mediterranean station, until 1813, when he attained 
tlie rank of captain of the Anaconda, a frigate 
capturetl by himself and purchased into the service. 
In her, he took part in the attack on New Orleans, 
where his ship was so injured that it was unfit for 
further use. He obtained his post rank in 181[), and 
served in various ships until 1884. He was knighted 
in 1824 for his many gallant and distinguished 
services against the enemy. In 184-0, he was 
appointed aide-de-camp to the Queen. He had been 
three times wounded, eight times gazetted for signal 
service before the enem^^ and had been more than 
one hundred times in action. He lost his right hand 
in 1818, when his ship under the command of Sir 
George Cockburn was off New Orleans.* The 
Americans were firing from behind the houses 
and trees, when Lieut. Westplial by the Admiral's 
orders lield out a flag of truce and called upon them 
to de.sist. They took no notice of the request, Init 
aimed and shot liim tiirough the very hand 
which bore the signal. He was twice married : first, 
in 1817, to the widow of W. Chambers, and again, 
in 1849. to the widow of G. A. Gore, who survived 
him, and by whom he had one daughter wlio died in 

Hill tays it was at Havre de Grace. — Ed, 


1 h70. Ho died on 12th January, 1875, at his residence 
in Drunswick Square, Brighton, England, in his 
ninetieth year. He was the last surviving officer of who had been on board the Victory at 
1'rafalgar. Once after entering the navy and while 
still a very young man, he visited Preston, and 
expressed his regret that he could find so few to 
recognize him of those whom he knew when a boy. 
He also mentioned his difficulty in finding the haunts 
so familiar in his childhood. He had left the villacre 
when only tliirteen years of age, and no doubt 
the glamour of memory gave an illusion to the 
plaj'ground of infancy, which was not so discern- 
able when visited after years of battle and victory. 

Another distinguislied resident of Preston, who, 
although not a native, spent several of his early 
years in the quiet of this township learning the 
secrets of Nature in her forests and by her streams, 
was the grave and wise philosopher whose history is 
told in the following sketch. 

In tiie year 1785, the Rev. Titus 8niitli was 
called to preside as an ^Ider over a church of a spct 
called Sandemanian.s, then formed in Halilax. He 
settled upon a farm in Preston. His family con- 
sisted of four children. Titus, the subject of the 
following bi()grai)liy, was the eldest. He was born, 
4th, 17G8, in Granby, Massachusetts. 






The other children were, Rebecca, born in 1771, 
Sylvester, in 1773, and William, in Februiry, 1777. 
They all returned to <he United States except Titus, 
The elder Titus was a veiy remarkable man. 
He graduated at Yale in 1774,* and took his degree 
in theology in connection with the Presbyterian 
V)ody. In 175G and 1757 he was a volunteer Hghting- 
the Indians on the frontier. After leaving college 
in 17G5, he, for three years, was a missionary to tiie 
Six Nations Indians who were in what is now 
central New York. He correspondeil with Dr. 
Priestley and followed him through all his investiga- 
tions and discoveries in the science of chemistry. 

* L. M. Holtwood in the Family Genealogies appended to 
Sylvester J udd'a History of Iladley, (Northampton, 18(53, p. 571), 
saya that Titus Smith (the elder) was born on 23r(l June, 1734, and 
graduated at Harvard College in 1764. This date agrees better 
with the statement that after leaving college in 1765 " he for throe 
years was a missionary to the Six Nations Indians." He was the 
son of John Smith, the son of John Smith (" Orphan John "), the 
son of John Smith, the son of Lieut. Samuel Smith, wlio sailed for 
New England on the last day of April, 1834, in the Elizabeth of 
Ipswich. A full genealogy of the family will he found in the 
History of HadUy. I have been told that Washington knew the 
elder Titus, and when the Revolution broke out, the great general 
came to him, and knowing his chemical skill, urged him to make 
gunpowder for the use of the rebels. Smith knew how to prepare 
it, but being a loyalist, refused to do as he was requested, and 
Washington had to go elsewhere to obtain hU powder. I have also 
been informed, that an uncle of the younger Titus, was the 
original of Cooper's Hawk-eye. He was a mighty man in Indian 
warfare. — Ed, 



He was a skilful botanist and an able matlieniatician. 
He conti'ibuttd to the periodicals of that day, many 
articles on scientific subjects. 

Sylvester returned and settled on a farm near 
Preston, married Hester Wisdom, had a lar^^e 
family, but was killed by an accident when in the 
prime of life. He was a carpenter by trade, was 
poetically inclined, familiar witli the Greek and 
Latin languages, made for amusement translations 
from Homer, and wrote Latin verse.* 

William settled at Watertown in the northern 
part of the state of New York. Hischildhcod and 
youth were spent in Preston, and his subsequent 
history shows that he rose to be a man <jf some 
mark. At the age of nineteen lie obtained leave 
from his parents to return to the United States, 
where he began life in earnest in a log-camp on 
Black Rivei-, afterwards called Watertown. It 
would take too long to follow him through an 
extended life and to tell how he farn)ed his new 
hind and made potash, worked as a eoo^ er and as a 
stone-mason, i-aised a, company of volunteei-s during 
the war of 1812 and was appointed captain, sub- 
se(|uently built and worked a cotton factory, a 

'Sylvester lived in the which still stands on the north- 
ern side of the present road to Preston, nearly two and a hiif 
miles from the town of Dartmouth. It is the first hcuse west- 
ward of York's.— if(/. 





foundry and a factory for making agricultural 
implements. He did not accumulate a fortune, 
but he left Watertown a lasting memorial of his 
marvellous industry and enterprise. Ho was a true 
man, made of the real stuff men should be made of ; 
rarely met, however. He died in November, 1858, 
at the ripe age of eighty-two years. A long 
obituary notice in the New York Reformer, observes, 
" It may with truth be said, that he found Water- 
town an irisigniticant hamlet in the midst of a 
howling wildernoss. He left it, through the improve- 
ments which he was mainly instrumental in bringing 
about, a large, prosperous and wealthy village, one of 
the most beautiful in a land of beautiful villages, 
and distinguished for its mechanical skill in an age 
of mechanism." 

VV'e must now turn to the remaining son, who is 
the chief subject of the present remarks. 

Titus Smith lived with his father, road classics, 
studied botany, cleared land, felled timber, made 
drains, and built stune-walls. His cleared land and 
stone-walls are still to the fore.* The books he read 
on natural history, were mostl^'^ in Latin. They 
were such works as C. H Persoon's Synopsis 

* Titus left Preston about 1797 or 180(), and re.siiled .afterwards 
at the Hutch Villa<ie, Halifax. ?Iis house at Preston was just 
west of Salmon River, near Mr. W. Silver's present residence. — Ed. 


Pliintarum, nnd tlie Systema Xatum of the crreat 
naturalist Linnreus. In May, 1801, lio received 
instructions to make a tour of the province, and 
to report the result to the government. These 
instructions, being of some historical value, are 
given below. 
To Mr. Titus iSmith, Jr., 

Sir :— Government liaving expressed a desire that 
means should be adopted in this province, to encourage 
the growth of Hemp ; at the recommendation of a committee 
appointed for that purpose, I have thought it proper to 
accept your offer, jointly witli Mr. Carter, to make a survey 
of so much of the peninsula of Xova Scotia as can be 
accomplished within the periods herein limited, and you 
will take the following instructions as your guide. 

1st. You will consider your engagement to expire at 
the end of fifty day.s, reckoning from the day on which you 
shall set off, unless renewed by our express order, in Avritinf 
from myself or the secretary of the province ; for which 
service you .shall receive eleven shillings and eightpence, 
Ha ifax currency, each day for yourself, and eight shillings 
eacli day for Mr. Carter, during your actual services, in full 
for your pay and every contingency. You will contrive to 
be so situated on or a little before the fiftieth day, as to 
hear from me or the secretary of the province. 

_ 2nd. Your principal object in this survey wid be, to 
visit the most unfrequented parts, particularly the banks 
and borders of the different rivers, lakes, and swamps, and 
the richest uplamls, for the jiurpose of discovering such 
spots as are best calculated for producing h<-mp and furnish- 
ing other naval stores. You will ma'ke your remarks on 
tiie .soiL the situation of the lands, and the specio-s, (piality 
and size of the timber ; the (luantity of each sort also, and 
tlie facility with which it can be removed to market. 
ihe thickness and length of mast timber vou will atton.l to 
in an especial manner ; and in every place which you shall 







cle(-ni cak'ulatecl for these purposes, you will, as near as 
possible, estimate the quantity of acres, the ]iossibility and 
means of rendering them fit for cultivation, either hy banks, 
drains or otherwise. 

3rd, You will receive from the Survoyor-fJeneral such 
a maj) of the Province as our present knowledge of the 
country can furnish ; you will endeavour, as far as lies in 
your power, to correct any errors in it, and on your return 
you will deliver to me the same with another containing 
these corrections and the route which you shall have gone 
distinctly placed on it. 

4th. You will in the first instance, go to the eastward 
of this harljour to the spot from whence issue the heads of 
the Rivers Stewiacke, ^lusquodoboit, and Saint Mary, and 
wherever else, in conseijuence of the information you may 
receive, you may be led to suppose the objects of your 
in(|uiries are to be found. Having examined the eastern 
side of the Province, from the iShubenacadie, the Dart- 
mouth Lakes, and the harbour of Halifax, you will proceed 
to the western side and exanune the lands about the Kiver 
Saint Croix, and the land of St. Margaret's Bay and thence 
along the northern side of Chester, Lunenburg, Liverpool, 
Shelburne, and Argyle, as far is Yarmouth, and the heads 
of those waters which empty themselves into the Atlantic. 
You will endeavour to examine Lake Kossignol, and will 
consider it to Ije a very principal object of your tour. You 
will trace tho?e rivers, as far as anything desirable is to be 
obtained from such an investigation, towards their mouths, 
which empty themselves into the River Ainiapnlis or the 
r>asin of Minas ; and if Avithin your power, without losing 
much time, you will examine the mountains which run 
parallel to the Day of Fundy, to the southward of the 
Annapolis Kiver. The last object of your researches will be 
the inland country situated between Bramshag [Rhemsheg'?] 
and Bay Verte in the N. E. and the Basin of Minas in 
theS. \V. 

5th. What is expressed in the second and fourth 
articles of these instructions, you will consider as your 
principal objects ; but if in the course of your travels you 
should meet with any other objects in natural history, or 





fiiul any indnconients of imjiortanfo, the iiivoatigation of 
whicli IS evidently for the benefit of the j)ubli.', you will 
use your <liseretion, ].rovi(le(l they do not oceasion any 
essential delay or in any respeet draw you awav from the 
main ol)jpet.s of your research, whicdi must not on any 
account b(! sacri Heed or even im|)eded. 

Gth. You will not omit to give me every information 
in your power by the fourth (hiy of June next, after wliich 
you will forward your intelligence ])y every favourable 
opportunity. In order to facilitate the present design, I 
have given directions to the secretary of the I'rovince 'to 
deliver you a circular letter, directed to all magistrates and 
other persons throughout the province, to afl'ord ycMi all the 
assi.stance in their power ; but you will take care not to 
require anything from them wliich .shall occasion an addi- 
tional expense to the government. 

. 7th. Your communications will be in the form of u 
journal, with reference to notes at the end, which will 
contain the detail. You will always make use of the names 
used l)y the present inhabitants, and refer to a tal)!e of 
Indian and French names and terms, with a view of correct- 
ing the ail)itrary names of late years introduced in tlie 
maps of this province. 

llahiax, Aora Sco/ia, Mcnj 2nil, ISOt. 

The tour was made and the foregoinrr instruc- 
tions fully carried out.* Possibly iew or none of 
the American colonies had a more full account of 
their uncultivated land and natural liistory, particu- 
larly botany, as Nova Scotia had in 1 802 after the 

* Smith's journal of this snivey is preserved the archives 
of Nova Scotia, volume .380. It contains a great amount of informa- 
tion. Tlie original of the missing part, will be found in the form 
of a wcll-fiiled note-l)ook, among tlie hooks bequeathed to the N. S. 
Historical Society by Dr. A kins. Smith's map of the survey ia 
also in the same collection.— /?(/. 



compk'tion of this survey. Roferonco to the manu- 
script report in the archives of tlie province, in 
which will be found a concise history of the trees, 
shrubs, etc., of the country', will show the careful 
mannei" in which he carried out his orders. The 
nuap returned to the governor with the report, was 
the only general one of the ])rovince until 1835, 
when a new map was constructeil under a special 
grant from the legislature. 

From 1802 onward for forty years, Titus Smith 
was employed on surveys in every part of the 
province. This gave him an opportunity of forming 
a remarkably accurate knowledge of the natural 
history of the region an<l its resources. He had 
much experience among the fishermen around our 
coasts, and his knowledge of the fishing industry 
and the conunerce associateil therewith, was most 
thorouirh. A merchant who followed his advice, 
could hardly fail to be successful. His extensive 
knowledge of the province is well manifested in the 
published report of his evidence before the Durham 
commission of 1848. One who often conversed with 
him previous to a general election, has remarked 
that his forecasts with regard to the ultimate result, 
were invai'iably correct. His ability for remember- 
ing a great many things at one time, and coming 
to correct conclusions, amount to genius. He con- 



10 manu- 
k'ince, in 
he trees, 
; careful 
rs. The 
lort, was 
;il 1835, 
I special 

s Smith 
of tlio 
He had 
ind our 
LS most 
: tensive 
1 in the 
3d with 
( result, 




tributed with no stintiiif,' hand to the newspapers 
and other periodicals of Halifax, for upwards of 
forty years, on every useful subject, more particu- 
larly Hffricnlture, rural economy, education, chemistry, 
f^^eology, and botany. He also delivered lectures in 
the old Mechanics' Institute, on all those subjects. 
For many 3-ears he held the position of secretary to 
the Central Board of Arrricnlture, and durinrr part 
of the time, conducted an aoricultural periodical. 

He was desitrnated " the Dutch Villa^'c Philoso- 
pher." This title had reference to his intellectual 
character and also to the locality where, after 
leavin<j Preston, he resided for fifty years. Not only 
was he considered an oracle in the neifddiourhood, 
but his fame also extended over the whole province, 
and was likt'wise reco<(nized by many both in old 
and New England. He corresponded with Dr. Ciraham 
of Edinburfjh, F. Andre Michaux of Paris, J. C. 
Loudon, and others. His lectures were generally 
printed in pamphlet foi'm. A jierusal of any one of 
them will satisfy the reader that the authoi- was an 
oiiginal thinker. In tiuth he was an original man 
in every way, and some one, Carlyle I think, has 
said that one original man is worth ten thousand 
modern imitators. 

Murdoch, in his Ilisfor)/ of Novd Scotia (vol. Ill, 
page 220), writes of him thus: '-Mr. Smith was 







remarkable for the vast and varied information he 
ac(|uire(l in botany, natural history, etc. With a 
familiar knowledge of most that nature and books 
could teach an inquiring; mind, he united the 
unfeigned simplicity and kindness that rendered 
him an agreealjle visitor, as well in the families of 
our citizens as in the cottages of the most humble. 

The following extract is from a letter written in 
March, 18.50, by William Smith, a younger brother 
of Titus, and printed in the Transddions of the 
N. S, Institute of Natural Science, volume I : — 

My brother Titus became an early reader under the 
teaehiiif^ of his father. When four years old lie read 
English books with facility. lie had at a very youthful age, 
the advantage of a good private school kei)t by a Mr. 
Daniel Humphrey, a graduate of Yale College. At seven, 
Vie had gained considerable ])roticieney in Latin, and at 
twelve, coidd translate the most difficult Latin authors, and 
had uuule good progress in the Cirecik. In youth, he 
evinced no desire to mingle in the anui.sements of chil- 
dren, but always sought the society of those from whom he 
could derive knowledge. His earliest desire appeared to be 
to jierfect himself in the knowledge of Imiguages such as 
Latin, trieek, Oerinan and French. He was more attached 
to biographical history than any otlic'r reading. As it was 
the constant practice in my father's family, that one should 
read aloud and the rest hear, when the book was in a 
foreign language it always fell to the lot of Titus to be the 
reader. Often have I listened with pleasure while he read 
the Commentaries of Cajsar from the Latin text, which he 
did with great facility. He became early attached to 
mathematics and astronomy, in which he had gained 
some i)roticiency, owing perhaps to a constant cause, always 
with him and operating through life, namely, an entire 



absence of dosiro to enj,'af,'(' the iiiiinl in the onlinnry 
nninscnients tliat too often dniw tlie niiml from the nmtter 
in hiiml. I think it may with literal truth he naid of him, 
that from two years of a^'e he was never known to ery and 
sehhmi to lauj,'h. I never saw him an^'ty and rarely much 
elated. With an even temperament, ho imisued wiiatevor 
lie undertook until it was aeeoniitlishecl. Ahout the year 
1790 or 1791, my father was furnished hy (Jitvernor 
AVentworth with a eomjilete set of the bolaniea! works of 
Linnnpus. From this time until I left home, much of the 
flowerinj,' season of th<^ year wns devoted to botanical 
studies, of whieh his fatlier also was passionately foutl. From 
that period onwards for nion; than half a century, I havc^ no 
personal knowletlge of Ids progress ; })ut what may not the 
inin<l of man accomplish when the key to knowled<fe is 
obtained and the store-house uuloeked, and Nature's works 
arc placed in view of an eye that is not diverted or drawn 
asidi! by the comitless trifles that beset us on every side ! 

Titus in early childhood had lived a few years in the 
city of New Haven. "While in that city, the most oi those 
who visited his father's house were men of letters, and 
disputations on religious subjects were very common. From 
this place his father removed to Long Island on the Sound, 
nearly opjiosite the city of New York ; and soon after, 
into the city. There is nothinj,' remarkable in the sur- 
rounding scenery of either of the places of his early 
residence. lie was not made for a painter nor a poet : 
matter of fact, things of real life and not of imagery, 
claimed tlie greatest share of his attention. lie was 
always liberal, setting no very great value on wealth, 
except so much as Avas necessary to supply the ordinary 
wants of life. lie thought but little of high birth 
or titles of honour. I think he only valued men by 
their knowledge and goodness. 

His views of tlie .supernatural origin of the 
Christian religion, were clear an<I strictly in accord 
with divine revelation, ignoring all traditions of 



Ill tlu; i'(jniiiiti(>ii of his iiiiiid, the sulilinie mid 
the marvt'll(»us wcro us largely developed as causality, 
ami tims he saw a liannony and beauty in all nature, 
wliicli capability is on!}' the ^dl't of a few souls, IIo 
was a cheerful fjiver. His <,nvat simplicity and 
earnestness made him a character easily to ho utider- 
stood : hut at the same time so keen a phy,sio;frnomist 
was he, that it would have been diHicult indeed for 
anyone to mislead or deceive him. The fluency 
with which he read and translated (Jreek, Latin, 
and French, was consi<lered wonderful by scholai's. 

" I only ma<le his ac(|uaintance," writes his sou- 
in-Iaw, Mr. Hendry, " late in life, when ho was 
an old man, but his nmnnei's and conversation 
were veiy youthful. He often recited in my hearing 
long poems from Hesiod — probably portions of the 
'Works and Days' — and from other classical 
authors. In conversation, his sentences and illustra- 
tions Avere long, whereas in writing he was short and 
concise, his desire then seeming to be to crowd much 
information into as small a space as possible. The 
retentiveness of his memory was very wonderful. 
In conversing ou subjects of theology, I often heard 
him repeat a whole chapter ; generally he repeated 
the paragrapli which illustrated the view he was 
inculcating. If the subject of conversation was 




liistory, he talked as if rending' from a Look ; or it' 
it took Riich a turn, he wotild repent, without 
atiy apparent efl'ort, a whole scene from one of 
Shak(!Sj)eare'H plays. It was after they removed to 
Preston that his father jnirchased an edition of that 
dramatist, and ho told me that he read the whole 
book thtouf,di at one sitting'. My late wife, his 
younf,'est dau^diter, and her sister, Mrs. John J^ayer, 
wlio was seventy-five yeaj's old in 1(SS(), have told 
me that they never heard their father complain of 
fatif,'ue nor saw him lie down durinf,' the day time 
— a custom indulged in by many, some from laziness, 
others from a constitutional tiredness." 

In the fall of l(S4f), he had an attack of jaundice 
which he tried to ward oiY by takin^f more than his 
usual exercise. He was most unwillinff that his wife 
and dau^diters should know of his illness, for fear it 
should alarm them. In spite of his efforts, the 
disease became worse, and he died at the Dutch 
Village on Friday, 4th January, 1.S50, the anni- 
versary of his marriage fort}' years l)efore.* 


* He %vii8 interred in a siniill Itiiryirg-gronnd of iii.s own, in 
wlncii he iiail allowed the Dutch settlers to bury their dead. This 
is in the woods betwoi-n Forrest'.s tanntry (at Ihe Three-Mile House) 
and the Dutch Village, near Halifax. A granite monument records 
the name, date of death, and age, of one of tiie most learned and 
most unobtrusive men the province luis ever proUiced— a man 




I'i' ■ 

irt I 

He was always beforehand with work. Up to 
the time of his death, and for years previously, he 
prepared a weekly article on ugricultui'e for the 
Acaduin Recorder of Halifax ; and at the time of 
his decease he ha<l several weeks' matter ready for 
the printer. The youthful and cheerful character of 
this man, may be gathei'ed from the articles written 
by him in his eififhtieth year. A description of a 
cattle-show at Kentville, composed for the Morning 
Chronicle the day after the exhibition in the autumn 
of 1849, is as boyish and sprightly in tone, as the 
reflections and advice are wise and appropriate.* 

Another of the early settlers of the immediate 
neighbourhood of Preston, was Mr. William Mott, 
the progenitor of the Mott family. He was an 
Englishman who came with a company of artillery 
to Halifax in the early days of the settlement. He 


whose like we shall never sec again. I extract the following from 

an obituary in the Acadian Recorder of r2th January, 1850: 

We think Mr. Smith was utterly inpamble of provokint; enmity in nny 
human heart. Apparently he recoitni/.ed no distinction in the rank ot individuals, 
but such as vice or virtue niakus— never changing his demeanour in addressing 
any pursnn, whether exalted or huixhle, intelligent or ignorant. Though unaf- 
fectvid in his addres.t, he wa^ invariably affable and gentle towards all with whom 
he had any intercourse. Indeed he was 'inwit-a maUj simplici^v— a child.' 
Had circunistaiices placed him in a diflturent sphere, we believe he pi>j!-esaed one 
of those giant intellects which is the production of an age, and capacitates its 

1)osseH80r to figure prominently in the world's history. But his was a different 
ot, and if it was cast among the humble — if the influence he produced is destined 
in a great measure to be local— his nieniury is less likely to be defamed by those 
who attribute all deserved repute to the promptings of pride and selfish 
anibition There are few of our citizen'* who were not familiar with the simple 
h:ibit', the benevolent features, and the venerable mien of this worthy and 
reuiaikable man. — Ed. 

* I am imlehteil to William A. Hendry, Esq. , for the whole of the 
preceding sketch of this remarkable man. — Author's Note, 


soon left the army and went into business in the 
town. There he remained for some years in the 
pursuit of liis calling. He afterwards obtained a 
piece of land adjoining Preston, on which he built a 
house, and removed there with his family. The 
latter consisted of four grandchildren, whose parents 
had died some years before. Mr. Mott farmed near 
Preston until his death.* His eldest grandson, 
Henry Yeomans Mott, Esq., married a daughter of 
John Prescott, Esq., of Maroon Hall, He remained 
on his grandfather's farm for a time, afterwards 
removed to Porter's Lake, and in 1832 purchased a 
property on the Eastern Passage Road, in Dart- 
mouth, on which was a valual)le brickyard (see 
page 93.) He afterwai'ds became a manufacturer 
of cocoa and broma. Mr. Mott represented the 
county of Halifax in the Legislative Assembly for 
four years, was a county magistrate for a long 
period, and died on 31st January, 186(5, in the sixty- 
ninth year of his age. His son, John Prescott Mott, 
Esq., a wealthy manufacturer and merchant of 
Dartmouth, was born at the Preston house in 1820. 
The second grandson, Thomas Mott, Esq., was 

* Mott's farm was about a third of a mile to the iiorth-w est of 
Maroon Hall, unci on the east side of Lake Loon. The phice is 
actually on the Dartnioutli side of the Preston boundary, but as it 
and Maroon Hall are historically connected with the latter town- 
ship, rather than with the former, 1 have let the account of each 
eniain in the essay on Preston. — Ed, 







B'f r- 







P' ' ' 

< 1 



educated for, and ordained a clergyman of the 
Protestant Ejjiscopal Church in the United States. 
He married and settled in North Carolina, and was 
rector of a church of that state until his death in 
1870. The eldest granddaughter married William 
Baker of Dorchester, Massachusetts, the celebrated 
cocoa manufacturer of that town. The youngest 
was the wife of the Rev. John Clarke, a graduate 
of King's College, Windsor. 

Sir John Wentworth — who was governor of Nova 
Scotia from 1792 until 1808, and whose name and 
dispatches form so prominent a part of our pro- 
vincial history — built a summer house in Preston 
during the early period of his residence in Halifax- 
It was situated on the northern side of the road, 
and to the eastward of Church Hill. There he 
had a farm on which he cmploj'ed the Maroons as 
labourers. The road leading past it into one of the 
coloured settlements, is still called Gove'/nor's Street, 
and although the house must have fallen more than 
forty j^ears ago, the place where it stood has been 
rebuilt and is still known as the Governor's Farm. 
George Colley, an illegitimate coloured son of the 
gi'eat governor, is still living, and is said to be over 
ninety j^ears old.* He and his children and their 
children, as well, still own and live on the property. 

*(ieorge \V. Colley, or Collie, dieil 2iul Nov., 189.3, aj;ed 
eighty-nine years, two months and seventeen days, according to 
the death-notice. — Ed. 





SOME pathetic stories are still renienibered by .i 
few of the older people of the place, stories of 
adventure and domestic tragedy among the 
early settlers of the old township. The sad death 
of poor Mary Russell and the drowning of the Jones 
children, together with the mysterious account of 
Margaret Floyer, are usually included among these, 
but as the events took place some distance witliin 
the township of ])artmouth, the tales have been told 
in connection with the latter district. 

The early inhabitants of Preston ha<l a great 
many hardships to encounter especially during the 
winter season. The district was sparsely settled 
and the houses far apart; snow-storms were more 
fre([uent and violent than now, and the drifts often 
prevented the farmers from going beyond their 
homes. In the month of February, an industri<jus 
mechanic named Smith, who lived on a small fiirm 
beyond Salmon River, had occasion to make a 





journey to Musquodoboit* This was no unusual 
occurrence, for being a carpenter, he ofton had work 
tliere, and always went to and i'ro on foot. The way 
was long and the road little travelled, but when the 
weather and walking were good, the distance — to 
use a country phrase — could easily be accomplished 
" Itetween sun and sun." On the present occasion. 
Smith left his home, accompanied by his son, a boy 
of seventeeii, and reached Musciuodoboit in safety. 
As the length of their stay in that place was 
uncertain, it was understood before they left home 
that they might be absent sevei'al days. On arriving 
at their destination, they found that they had to 
go back to Preston sooner than had been expected. 
After remaining two nights in JMusciuodoboit, they 
started to return. Tiie morning was fine, pjefore 
noon, however, snow fell heavily ; the rough forest 
roads soon filled up and made walking slow and 
fatiguing. Night came on before the travellers had 
gone over two-thirds of the distance. The}^ stopped 
at a house for a little while, and spoke hopefully of 
making their way along the track before bed-hour. 
This was the last time they were seen alive. The 





' 'rtu 





•This story forms No. 6 of "The Tales of Our Village" 
(Provincial, 1852, vol. I, pp. 466 471). The author there says that 
it occurred less than forty years before the time of writing. — Ed, 



family at home had no anxiety a])out them, as they 
helieve.1 they would he detained at Musquodohoit 
until the end of the week. The night passed, and 
the day bi-oke clear and frosty, followed by another 
night of intense cold. When the morning came, 
labourers broke through the snow in order to proceed 
with their work in the woods. Smith's elder sons 
got their team i-eadj- to liaul firewood. They had 
gone but a short distance, when they were attracted 
by a dark object on the snow. It was found to be 
their father's body lying stiff and cold, half buried 
under a snow tlrift. A little further, they discovered 
their brother. He had evidently perished first, for 
his father's luindkerchief was laid over his face, and 
his position showed that he had been placed where 
he lay, l)y other hands. They had evidently toiled 
on through the dark, snowy night, until fatigue and 
cold had done their work on the poor fellows' 
exhausted frames, only a (juaiter of a mile from 
home. Too bewildered by the snow and darkness to 
recognize familiar places, they had sunk down to die 
within i-each of help and shelter. Many a brave 
man, in the early days of Nova Scotia, has perished 
in this manner. The fate of poor Smith and his son 
seemed all the more sad because it met thera almost 
on the threshold of their home. They were buried 
in the old cemetery on Church Hill. 





A touching story and one that is often tol<.l, is 
that of the lost children — the Preston babes in the 
wood. Nearly fifty years ago, an Irishman named 
John Meagher cleared a piece of land and built a 
house in the woods between Topsail Lake and Lake 
Loon. A by-road at the east end of the former lake 
led to the dwelling. He was an industrious man 
v;'ih .1 wife and cliildron, and was often employed as 
a vj.vy b'bouror in the forest or at the tanyard. One 
sunny ni-jvuing in early April, 184i2, his two little 
girl;;, Jane L'l 'ibeth and Margaret or Maggie as she 
was ca/iod, wan-! > vl away from their home. The 
former was aged six years and ten months, and the 
latter, four years and six months. Their mother 
was ill and unable to be about, and their elder sister, 
who attended to the wants of the house, did not miss 
them or see them go away. The day was pleasant 
for the sea.son, and the little ones with no other 
clothing but their ordinary house frocks, set off to 
ramble for berries or mayflowers. The thick woods 
grew near the house, and once within the forest it 
was easy to lose the track and go astray. When the 
father came home in the evening from his work, he 
found the mother frantic with anxiety for the 
children who had not returned. It was about ten 
o'clock on Monday morning, 11th April, when they 
had left home, and all through that long week, 



thoufjh Imndrerls were searchin^^, no trace of them 
could he found save a few tracks at one place, the 
print of a small hand at another, and a piece of 
rag at another. Snow had fallen during the week, 
and the nights were cold and dreary. As day after 
day went by, all hope ceased of finding the children 
alive. The whole sympathy of town and country 
was excited, and on Sunday, 17th April, some thou- 
sands of men of all classes, including parties of 
soldiers, were searching the barrens and swamps for 
miles around. On that day at eleven o'clock in the 
morning they were found.* A shepherd's dog had 
discovered them, and stood beside the little bodies, 
barking frantically until he attracted the attention 
of some of the searchers. When the latter came to 
the place, they found the children lying in the 
shadow of a great granite boulder, clasped in each 
others arms, worn with fatigue and silent in death. 

* The spot where the bodies were discovered was just on the 
east side of a hill called Mount Major on Church's Map of Halifax 
County (IS64), and a short distance west of Luke Major. The 
children had travelled about four miles. A map was prepared by 
J. G. McKenzie, and published, showing the supposed course taken 
by the wanderers. A copy of it will be found in the Legislative 
Library, Halifax. A contemporary account says that the parents 
of the girls were confined to their house by sickness on the day 
they disappeared. The Meagher house was actually a short 
distance outside of the Preston boundary, but the above story is 
always connected with the township.— j^«/. 



The older ehikl had taken off part of hov own dress 
and wrapped it round the younger one, and her 
sheltering arms were folded ahout the hitter to 
protect her even in death. The face of the little 
one was sweet and peaceful, but a volume of agony 
was written on the countenance of the elder girl. 
Human love and self-sacrifice in their highest degree, 
were touchingly apparent in this sister's attitude. 
As the poor father lifted the dead children from 
tlieir cold, hard bed, tears fell down many a rough 
cheek in sympathy for him and the sorrowful 
mother at home. They were laid in one coffin, as 
nearly as possible in the same attitude in which 
they had been found, and on Tuesday, 19th April, a 
wet, dismal day, the whole neighbourhood followed 
them to the grave. They were buried in Woodlawn 
Cemetery, and a meniorial stone of granite with an 
appropriate inscription, was placed over the spot. 
This stone was ordered and paid for by a few kindly 
persons whose hearts were touched by the sad story 
of the suffering and death of the lost children.* 

* They are buried, in the western end of the cemetery, near 
the fence, and about midway between the northern and southern 
boundaries. In 1891, a white marble monument marked the spot. 
It bore on one side the following inscription : " Martha, | 
Margaret, Jane, j Elizabeth & | (Jeorge, | Children of | John k 
Jane j Meagher." The comma between "Jane" and "Elizabeth" 
is a mistake of the stone-cutter. — Ed. 



Forinmiy years, the Hon. Chiirk'.s Morris and his 
family made tlioir summer homo in Preston. Mr. 
Morris was the third of that name in Nova Scotia, 
and a grandson of the Hon. Charles Morris, one of 
the known names in the history of Nova Scotia, 
a sketch of whom will he found in the SdrcflonH 
frum the Pahlic Dacainents of Nova Scotia, page 
293. Charles Morris, son of Hon. Charles Morris, 
succeeded his father about 1781 in the office of 
surveyor-general. He was also an assistant judge of 
the supreme court, though not a lawyer by pro- 
fession. On his, on 2Gth January, 1802, 
his son, the Hon. Charles Morris, the third of the 
name, became sui-veyor-general, and was appointed 
a member of H. M. Council in 1808. (Vide Sdec- 
tiona from the Public Documents of Nova Scotia, 
page 293.) 

Hon. Charles Morris (the third) in his duties as a 
surveyor, was well acquainted with the province and 
particularly with Halifax county. While his chil- 
dren were quite young, he built a house * on the 
eastern border of Lake Loon, Preston, and there 
some of their happiest days were spent. It was 
beautifully situated on a slight rise facing the lovely 
lake. The placid water, w^ith its clusters of great 

* About three-quarters of a mile or a mile from the Preston 
Road. The Montagu Road now leads past it.— Ed. 




lillioH set here an<l there, reHected the trees on 
the shore, mid great loons with snowy hroasts and 
spreading wings floated in the air ahove, calling 
to each other in uiunelodious, langhing tones, as 
the night fell and the rain-clonds gathered. All the 
wild beauty which Nature gives so prodigally to her 
hidden nooks, was there. It was a lovely sheet of 
water when summer touched its ripples with sun- 
shine ; it was beautiful in winter, when the blue 
waves ha»l been bound with frost, ami the boys and 
girls skated over its surface in the silver moonlight, 
while the merry sleigh-bells rang out as they passed 
over its snowy highway. Under the fissures of the 
thick ice, the imprisoned waters muttered hoarsely, 
like the wail of spirits struggling to be free. 

It was no wonder that Mr. Morris with his full 
hou.sehold of boys and girls, all ardent h)vcrs of 
nature, should have chosen fov a countr^'^ retreat 
this beautiful situation by Lake Loon. Here was 
fostered that taste for pure, simple pleasures, tliat 
love for the woods and the streams, which never 
forsook the members of this honoured and courteous 
family, even when the aged forms were bent and 
the feeble footsteps told that the end of life was 
near. To the love of nature was added the keen 
enjoyment of the sportsman. They were all familiar 
with natural history, knew the plants of the forest. 

TAI,l.s, KIV, 


tlio liimiit, of tlic iiidusc iiiiil t'iii-ilxtu, 1111(1 till! pools 
where salinoii ami tiout were liidden. All who 
knew them, still chei-ish trndcr meinories oi" this 
wise, refined, simple yet jxriiliiir family, th(> memhers 
of whieh were always kind and a;,'reealile, and most 
unwoi'ldly in nature. 

\VhiI(! the Hon. Cliarlcs Morris lived, the Lak(! 
Loon property was only oeenpicd dnrin<,' the sunnner 
uiontiis. After his death, his widow and his 
unmarried children made it their permanent home. 

His eldest son, . I oh n Spry Monis, Ks((., succeeded 
liim as surveyor-;,'en''ral of the j)rovince. He was 
the fourth in succession cf the family to hold that 
office. He resi^rncd it many years before his death, 
and went to Kn^^rjaiid, where he died in ISSI, nrral 
ei^dity-six years. 

The second son, the Rev. C'harles Morris, ])asse(l 
some of the early pait of his life in the Kin<''s 
service. He was always a man of most stu<lious 
liahits and <,freat scholastic attaimnents. Althou.i,dx 
timid and retiring' iji his hahits, yet ho united with 
much C()ura^a> a f^reat love of adventure. The 
story of liis life wouM make a pleasant cha[)ter of 
biograj)hy. As has heen mentioned, he was a very 
euf^er student, thorou<^ddy ahsorhed in his hooks. 
When a young man studying at King's College, he 
often drove into Windsor with a Greek lexicon in 



his luiiuls and the reins ItL'twecn his teeth, utterly 
retjiirdless of his own or otlioj* people's safety. t 

in life he took holy orders, hut did not at once c.cer 
on parochial work. He afterwards wont to Quebec, 
and in Gaspe in that diocese had a small coiiffrcfja- 
tion of English residents under his charffe. His 
nunistrations were very acceptable to the people, and 
his earnest, .st'lf-den^'in^ life made a j^reat impression 
on t!iem. Emi<:frant or ^'astric fever was then 
doinff deadly work in the hospital at Grosse Island. 
Numbers died daily, and all were in need of spiritual 
help and consolation. Mi-. Morris immedi»'*oly 
volunteered his services as a teacher and com T 
of the sick and dyin^^ in the hospital. Ho was v ,y 
earnest and helpful in the work, never sparing 
himself, but remaining day and night at his post. 
His christian charity and self-abnegation commanded 
the admiration of all. In the midst of his work lie 
was prostrated by fever, and died, after a very short 
illness, from the effects of that terril)le disease. He 
was pure and simple in life, and of most earnest and 
unpretending piety. Like the Master he served, he 
hiid down his life for his brethren, and so entered 
into his i-est. 

The third son, the Rev. George ^[<)rris, studied in 
England, and was there ordained, in 1821, a clergy- 
man of the Church of England. He afterwards 

■i ' 



rotui'iiod to Nova Scotia and had charffo of the 
parish of Rawdoii, whero ho married and roinainod 
several years. There he lost his wife. In IS+S he 
was transferred to Dartmouth, and was made rector 
of Christ Church, but was superannuated in 1854, 
and from that time lived in retirement in Halifax. 
He was constitutionally indolent and always in 
delicate health. He was a careful student and ripe 
scholar, a good writer and judicious critic, and a 
pure-hoarte<l christian man. Ho died in October, 
1883, in his ninetieth yenr. 

Dr. Frederick Morris, another son, was well 
known as a medical practitioner in Halifax. Like his 
brothers, he was very studious. He was also much 
given to experinu utal chemistry, and while engaged 
^n this pursuit he unfortunately injured his hand and 
had to undergo amputation of the part. Although 
very eccentric, yd he was a kindly and genial man 
under all circumstances. His death occuired in 

Edward was in the Crown Lands Department for 
many years. Very sensitive and reserved, he was a 
man who rarely spoke outside of his own home, but 
there he was very much beloved. 

James Morris, Esq, the youngest son of this large 
family, spent the grejiter part of his life in the 
excise and custom department both in Yiirniouth 



and in Halifax. He was a geiiei-al favourite, always 
genial and cheerful, not\vithstandin[^ ill health and 
other infirmities. He alone of the family left 
children — four sons — of whom one succeeded his 
father as clerk in the custom house, which ofHce ho 
held until his death. 

One dautrhter of the Hon. Charles Morris was 
the wife of Rev. Mr. Witririns of St. John, N. B. 
The others were nevci' married. 

Mrs. Morris died at Lake Loon. Soon after her 
death, the property was sold, and the old family 
which had been so associated with all that was best 
and most pleasant in Pi'eston, removed to Dartmouth 
and afterwards to Halifax, until one by one they 
passed over to the great majority. 

The purchaser of Lake Loon was an En<flishman 
named George Forbes Thompson, a retired lieutenant- 
colonel in the Royal Engineers. It was .«aid that 
this gentleman had come to Nova Scotia to look 
after, and perhaps settle on, some land granted to 
him in A^desford, Kings County ; but in reality his 
purpose was to avoid intercourse with his friends, 
and to conceal what was afterwards proved to be a 
great crime. 

In early life he had married a German [Spanish ?] 
lady whose mother was said to have been a Miss 
Kirkpatrick, sister of the mother of the Empress, etc. 


Eugenie of Fnmce* This lady has been represented 
as an amiable and ji[entle jjirl, but timid and nervous 
to an extreme degree. Her husband is said to 
liave been an unloving and selfish man, and under 
her disappointment in him, she grew depressed and 
listless. While he was serving with his company in 
the Barbadoes, accompanied by his wife and family, 
an insurrection took place among the b]:vck popula- 
tion. During the disturbance, one of iiis children 
was kill('(l. The poor mother's terror while the riot 
lasted, and her grief for the death of her child, 
unsettled her reason, and she became incurably 
insane. Soon after. Col. Thompson returned to 
England where he remained for some time. There 
he placed his childi'en at school and his wife in an 
asylum. The poor lady was in a very hopeless 
mental condition, but she was never vi(jlent or 

Col. Thompson was soon under orders for Ceylon, 
and remained in that garrison for five years. While 

* The motlier of the I'jiipress Eugenic had two younger sisters, 
Ciulottii who married her cousin, '] iiomas Kirkpaliick, ami went 
to Sp^iii, and Henri(iU(>tta who married Count ("aharra.s, and 
resided near Velez Malaga. They were the (laughters of William 
Kirkpatriek. If Mrs. Thompson was really the cousin of the 
Knipress, the former was the <langliler of one of these two hidies. 
In one part of the evidence it is slated tliat Mrs. Thompson had 
been a .Spanish lady from Malaga — Ed. 

•^ ^, 

s' f! 

' r ■ ■' ■^. 

' • i4; 


' i t 

'■ .^1 



' 1;" 

■■"■.'(•' ' 

, '*!''■ 

'■- ' 

4 ' 

U ■ 

It V 



there, he took for his mistress tlio widow of one of 
the soldiers in his company. She was a handsome 
young Irishwoman, very uneducated and ambitious, 
of violent temper and vindictive nature. She 
gained thorough ascendency over the Colonel, and 
her wishes were to him generally as commands. 
When they returned to England, she was determined 
to rid herself of the lawful wife, take the hitter's 
place, and make her own children heirs of the 
Colonel's estate, which was a considerable one. With 
this end in view, she encouraged him to embark for 
Halifax, and on the plea of saving money, persuaded 
him to remove his wife from the asylum and take 
her with them, promising to be the demented lady's 
nurse and guardian. Col. Thompson was as weak 
as he was wicked. He not only allowed the 
Irish widow to carry out all her plans, but on 
ai-riving at Halifax, introduced her as Mrs. Thompson, 
and represented his own unhappy wife as her aunt, 
who being out of health and spirits, they had brought 
from abroa<J for the benefit of change. 

Col. Thompson visited Aylesford, but on examina- 
tion his land there was not appreciated, and he 
determined to purchase elsewhere. After looking 
about for some time, he decided to obtain Lake 
Loon. Having bought the property, ho furnished 
the house handsomely, and on 22nd August, bSlS, 




settled down to the life of a quiet country gentle- 
man. There a son and heir was born, and great 
rejoicing was made by both parents over the event.* 
All who visited them were delighted with the 
polished manners and graceful hospitality of Col. 
Thompson, and equally surprised at the rough-and- 
ready style, genuine brogue and other peculiarities 
of the lady who was called his wife. Soon the 
little world of Preston began to talk, to wonder, 
and to suspect. The Colonel and his wife quarrelled 
frequently, and the servants reported mysterious 
expressions they had overheard. Then it was said 
that the poor, gentle aunt was neglected, even ill 
treated. Weeks went by and the stories gathered 
strength. Colonel and Mrs. Thompson left home to 
visit friends, and stayed nearly three days. During 
that time, the aunt was locked in a very small room, 
without a fire or any nourishment but frozen food 
left beside her when her jailors went away. After- 
wards, during the occasional absence of the master 
and mistress, the servants spoke to the prisoner 
through the closed door.f She toM them that she 
was Col. Thompson's wife, the mother of his chil- 

* One or two other children had come with them to Halifax. 
While in the latter place, they stayed at the Halifax Hotel.— AW. 

tThis is not altogether supported by the evidence at the 
inquest. The door does not appear to have been locked, and some 
of the servants said they had spoken to her a few times in her 
own room. — Ed. 





. I 

(Iren in England, and that the woman who had 
taken lier place was most insolent and cruel to her. 
As time passed, the interest and suspicion increased. 
Further reports of nejTlect and ill-treatment were 
heard. People were anxious and unhappy, hut no 
one dared to interfere. Those who had liked and 
visited Col. Thompson, avoided him, and all felt 
that there was a mystery which ought to be solved. 
About thirteen months after Thompson's purchase 
of Lake Loon, light came, in a way least expected. 
One early September morning, sad news spi-ead 
through the village : wife or aunt, or whatever the 
poor thing might be, was dead ! The servants said 
she had pined and drooped daily. Want of air 
and proper food, of all tliat could strengthen the 
machinery of life, had hastened the sorrowful end. 
They told how she had called for her husband until 
at last the cruel woman who watched her was afraid 
to deny her entreaties, and desired him to come in ; 
how he whispered to her in Gorman, drew her poor 
head down upon his breast, and held her in his arms 
till all was over.* 

*I cannot find authority for this in the evidence. The so- 
called wife iield the poor lady's liand until she died, while a 
servant j^iil, Susan Green, stood near the foot of the bed. These 
were all who were in the room. Co'. Tiionipson apparently was not 
called into the house until she had expired. He then may have 
taken her in his arms as related ahove. She died .Sunday evening, 
about dark, between seven and eight o'jlock, '20tli Sopteml)er. — Ed, 




Preston was excited, and hungered and waited 
for more. Then came the funeral. Slie was taken 
to Dartmoutli and buried in the old Roman 
Catholic Churchyard between Windmill Road and 
Geary Stieet. This was a new surprise. Col, 
Thomp.son and his family belonged to the Church of 
England ; if this poor lady was a Romanist, why 
was she denied the rites of her church ? why 
allowed to die without the spiritual services of a 
clergyman of her own faith ? The excitement and 
assertions were extreme. Rumour ran wild. The 
people and clergy of her own church were at first 
suspicious, then aroused into action. Finally tlie 
poor lady's remains were exhumed and a coroner's 
inquest held over them. Then, as far as possible, 
the awful truth came out. Witnesses were called 
from every class and profession. Some military 
men then in the Halifax garrison, had known Col. 
Thomp.son and his wife when in England, and in 
spite of the terrible change and emaciation, lecog- 
nized in the dead lady the person of their old friend. 
They also told what they knew of her sad life and 
her loss of sanity. Servants related cruel tales of 
how she had suffered from the cold of winter and 
the stifling heat of summer, in a narrow, unventilated 
room, of the coarseness and scantiness of the food 
allowed her, until all who heard the stories were 



convinced that she had been foully niurdored l»y 
confinement and starvation. 

The verdict of the coroner's jury was not satis- 
factory to a pityinjx and indif^nant people. The 
jurors stated that they had stronf^ i-ea.sons for believ- 
ing that the deceased lady was the wife of George 
Forbes Thomp.son, late Lieutenant-Colonel in the 
Royal Engineers, and that she had for some time 
previous to her death not experienced that care and 
attention which her situation required, and that she 
had been insane for some years, but they were unable 
to account for her death.* 

Col. Thompson went back to his home, botlily 
unharmed by the law, but shunned and execrated 
by all who knew hii He remained at Lake Loon 
until the next spring, when finding public opinion 

*She liad died on 20th September, and between ten and eleven 
o'clock, a. m., on the 22nd, she was buried by Rev. James Kennedy 
of St. Peter's Chapel. The in(}uest was heUl l)efore James Finhvyson 
Gray, coroner, on 29th and 30th September, and on 2nd and Gth 
October. The entire evidence will be found among the inciuisi- 
tions in the Prothonotary's Office, Halifax, indorsed, "County of 
Halifax, Inquisition, Woman unknown, Gth October, 1846, lietd. 
10th October, 1846." Those who are interested and wish to judge 
for themselves, should by all means consult this sworn official 
record. Although the unfortunate lady is mentioned in the inquisi- 
tion as "a woman whose name is to the jurors unknown," yet 
"Catherine Ann Tiiompson " had at first been written but was 
afterwards scored out. It may be accepted as her probable nanie. 
The story is No. 8 of "The Tales of Our Vdlage " (The 
Provincial, toI. II, pp. 211-217, 267-272, 289-304, 346-353, 379-388, 
431-438, 459-469.)— i;(/. 



too stron^r for him, he and his family returned to 
Enghmd. Once he was seen there by a Halifax 
gentleman who ha.l known him when he lived in 
Preston. This gentleman said that the Colonel was 
looking feeble and careworn, but that lie still seemed 
to take a great interest in Nova Scotia and enquired 
after many persons he had been accjuainted with in 
that province. Once more he was heard of, and for 
the last time. He and his wife were keeping a 
boarding-house in London, and living most unhappily 
together. She was very intempei-ate, and he was 
broken down by loss of friends and the upbrai.lings 
of an accusing conscience. 

Of course it is impossil)le to fill in the details of 
the stoiy. The main facts are true as the they have 
been here told. Only those who remember the 
circumstances of this tale of wrong and cruelty, and 
the great exciteuient at the time of the trial, can 
realize how the occurrence stirred and haunted the 
imagination of the people of Preston. 

Soon alter this tragedy was ended, the agent 
who had been left in charge of the property 
by Col. Thompson, sold it to another well-known 
military gentleman, Col. George Montagu. This 
officer had been in Halifax many years before 
with his regiment, and he was well known and much 




liked l»y till who were accjuaiiited with him. He 
was connected with the aristocracy of England, his 
grand-uncle lieing the Duke of Manchester. He 
lived at Lake Loon with his family for more 
than thirty years, improving the property and enjoy- 
ing its quiet retreat after Ids years of military 
service. At last his great age induced him to remove 
to Dartmouth, where he would he nearer medical help. 
He died in a house adjoining Findlay's pond, near the 
First Lake, on 10th January, 1<S(S9, in the ninoty-tirst 
year of his age. His youngest son, Oore Montagu, is 
the present owner of the property at Lake Loon. 

The atljaeent part of the country has l)cen 
brought prosniniintly into notice by the discovery of 
gold in the neighbonrliood. The thiding of the 
precious metal was reported at the Gold Couunis- 
sioners Office on the 21st day of April, ISO.S; and 
up to July 2Sth, two hundred j»nd three acres of no. 1 were leased, one hundred and iifty of 
which wei'e taken by four companies. Numerous 
auriferous (piartz veins, varying in thickness from 
three to twelve inches, have been discovered. The 
total yield of gold from hsr).'} to bSS.j was 28,3,029 
oz., 6 dwt., 10 gr. The district is calleil Montagu, in 
honour of the late owner of Lake Loon. 

The discovery of gold and the working of the 
raiuL's, have not done very much for the advance- 

1 1 



nu'iit of Pnvst..n. A s.-ttlnnont, consistin.,^ oliicHy 

<)F lints {or uuun-s ui„l oth.M- sn.ull |„M,srs lor 

lal:ouivrs, has ^r,-oNv„ up nmn.l tlie ^^oM f!,.l,|s, l.ut 

tli(M...i^rl,!H,„n„^r,|i,stnct, tliou^^li it lius passr.l its ccn- 

to.arv, I, as not -^Tcatly iinj-rov...!. A ^wnt <lcal of 

barren lan.l is i„ th<. vicinity of Monta-n, and 

str..t,-Ii..s ont to Lake .Major, a .lesolat.-, .Ireary sl„.,.t 

of water, set in a eold, l.anvn swamp, with ;,raunt 

skeletons of hare, hh-ached tre.-stnnips risiiiir hko 

ton.hstones from tli(. ^n-eat ^M-ave of sta-nant water. 

Amon^^ the notahle eharaeters at some time 

resident in the ])laee, was Sir .I.,Jmi Oi.hiiixon. H,. 

was an eccentric Kn<rlish kni^dit who came across the 

sea and ma.le his home in this new land. Aithoii<di 

lH)ssesse.] ,,f some fortune, hv. held alo..f from 

society, and amused himself with <run and fishin^r. 

rod in sunmier, and with hooks in winter. He n-as 

made a county magistrate, and administered justice 

with much fairness. ITe afterwards s.'ttled in Sack- 

ville, near Jk'dford Ik.sin, where he died. 

Mary .Molyneu.x was amon,<r the first orantecs 
of Preston.* She was of KnnlisI, descent, and 
*_!!! ^^^^l^'^ '' I'alf-J.ay army ollicer. As the ^a-ant 

*Ac'cor,ling to an ..M plan, whUt-imiu k,.,l I7!),-,, M„ly,„.„x'a 
hons.. wii.s on the western si,!,- of M,,. Salmon lliver -awl ontlio 
north si.le of the road Iciciing to (.:iinirh Hill. M,-. \V. Silvers 
resilience isnuar the place.- /:'«/. 



niSToiiY or riiKsTON. 

was tnkoM in Iter own niinu', we nnist suj)|)()s(' tlmfc 
Ml*. Molyncux was not a rt'sjjonsiljlo person. At all 
events, aftei' lie became a resident of Preston, his 
nuuniers were not snch as to en<lear him to his 
nei^'hlionrs. He was very intemperate, and on those 
t're((uent occasions when his better judffment was 
obscure<l by stimulants, his wife came in for an 
unph'asant sliare of his attention. It was his custom 
to beat her most unmercifully, and the poor woman 
genei"ally took refuse in the luiy-mow until hertyiant 
had recovered ]»is senses. At last he suspected 
where her retreat was, and arming' himself with a 
pitch-fork, plun<fed it violently into the trusses of 
hay which spread over the nmw, exclaiminn; with 
each thrust, "This will bring you out!" It did, and 
in future she had to seek some treacherous 

At last he died, and his wife lived on alone in her 
little cottage, bent and decrepit. She was always 
very eccentric, and in her old age was most 
witch-like in ajipearancc. tfer house was built on a 
sunny knoll near the bank of the Salmon River. 
Boys were her natural enemies, and in guarding her 
apples and her garden, she was kept in perpetual 
warfare. As a farmer, she did not prosper, and some 
yeai's before her death her property passed out of 
her possession by mortgage. She lived on till the 



end, howovoi", in the house she Imd l»uilt and alwiiy.s 
occnpiod in Preston since slie came across the sea in 
one of the eai-ly transi)orts, u 3•ounf,^ hopeful woman, 
to bury her youtli and anticipations in Nova Scotia. 

The eai-Iy settlers and theii* tlescendants who onco 
peopled the pleasant townshiji of Preston, were a 
simple, (|uiet race. Nearly all of the old famili 
have died out, or else ha 
d tl 


\(' o-one a\va\- t 


I otiK'l 

scenes; and those who liveil in the place durini,' the 

niidille of thi 

s century, can liardlv reeo<'nize tlu 

names and faces of the present inhabitants 

Time, which hi-ini-s d 

lantt'e to all thiuL's, ha> 

altered but not improved the place. At one period, 
it promised to prosper and increase, but its <ri(.\vth 
has been .slow, and its prosperity is amouf^ the thinf(.s 
to be. In the years to come, when the Old \V(a-ld 
has tilled every nook and corner of Canadian land, 
the pleasant tieMs of Preston may be set by smil 
homesteads, and the M'hirr of macliinery and the 


screech of the steam-whistl 

e may be heard beside her 

lakes and alon^r lioi- hi<rhways. Her sister township of 
Dartmouth is full of stir and 

I)rofrres.s. I his activity 

should naturally extend to Preston, and till her waste 
lands with life and enterpiise. Our work has be 


with the past; who can foretell what the futun 
historian will have to record ! 






THE Township of Lawrencetowii was formerly 
known liy its Indian and French names, 
VVampack, Tawbooslionikcc, Mafjonsliish and 
Shezetcook or Chezzetcook. In tlie year 1754, Col. 
Lawrence, then administrator of the government, 
with a view to promote the settlement of the 
countiy, and finding that there was good meadow- 
land at the harbour some twelve miles to the 
eastward of Dartmouth, had a survej' made of the 
place, the boundaries deiined, and the districts 
staked ofi*. The intended township was about four 
leamies east of Halifax. It connnenced at the 
confluence of Smelt Brook with the north-east 
bi-anch of Cole Harbour, and extended as far as 
the Falls of Chezzetcook River. Henceforth it was 
known b}' the name of its founder, Lawrencetown. 

The township was granted to twenty pi-ojn-ietors* 
The grant consisted of twenty thousand acres of land. 
The names of the original grantees were as follows : 
John Barker, William Drake Spike, John Hussey, 

*Tlic gram is dutoil 10th Jiino, 17r)4. Tlie original will lie 
found in Hook 2, page ."^l^, at the Registrar of DoihIs Olfioe, 
Halifax. A CDpy is in the Crown Lands Office.— /v/. 

pp'; >■ 




John Collier, Robert Ewe?', Richfinl Bulkeley, Willium 
Xesbitt, Geoi-we Suul, Rev. John Breynton, Arthur 
Pi ice, John Taorgart, WilHatn Mafjee, Robert Grant. 
Davia Lloyd, Ro\)ert F. Walter (or Walker), Richard 
Wenman, Matthew Barnard, Benjamin Green, Jr., 
John Baxter, William Morris. 

These ])roprietors undertook to settle twent}' Pro- 
testant families there, and the Governor promised to 
build a block-house and to protect the place with a 
military guard. The twenty families each received 
one tliousand acres of land. The grant extended 
from Chc^zetcook to Colo Harbour. 

Jn May, 175+,* two hundred regulars and some 
rangers were sent to guard the people engaged in the 
work of clearintj and settlinir. The soldiei's cut a 
road from Dartmouth to the iww town, which was 
to be on a small peninsula about ten miles fi'om 
the former plice. The isthmus of this peninsula was 
picketed in, and a block-house erected within 
the palisades. The ])romise of protection was thus 
fulfilled, and for a time the settlement remained 
under proper defence. 

Lawrencetown was described in March, 1755, as 
" a large palisailed square and Blockliouse situated 
upon a point of land near the Harbour of Mns(|ue- 

* T'liis must Imve l)uen in May, 17.";5, for the grant was dated 
June, 175-t, and was not legifstired until Deceniljor, 17'>4. — Ji^d. 



dalioit [sic] about 4 leaf(uo,s 1>y wat.'r eastward IVom 
Halifax with wliicli there is a Coininluiication l>y 
land from Dartmouth, distance about 12 or 14 miles. 
This is a Settlement undertaken by a Company of 
Gentlemen, and protected by the troops from the 
incui-sions of the Indians who live a ^-ood part of 
the year in that nei^'hbourhood." (" Remarks rela- 
tive to the Return of the Fcjrces in Nova Scotia," 
30th March, 17o5 ; vide Sflectioiifi from Public 
DocuvK nfs of iY. S., page 402). 

The stij)ulated twenty families were all settled 
in Lawrencetown by tlie associate proprietors, and 
maintained at their expense. These persons promised 
to become useful settlers, as they were fruL^'al and 
industi-ious. It may be hei-e oljserved that the 
original grantee's of Lawi-encetown, received exten- 
sive grants of land in other jiarts of the jn'ovince. 

All went well with the new townshi[) for two or 
three 3'ears. Then the troops were Avithdi-awn and 
the stockaded foi't and public buildings were onlei'ecl 
to l>e demolished. The date of this I'esolution was 
2.5th August, 17.')7. (ien. Hopson, then connnanding 
the troop,s in Nova Scotia, ordci'ed the withdi'awal. 
The pi'0])rietoi's, who I'eceived no com])ensation for 
this hai'sli conduct, abaitdoned for a time all connec- 
tion with the })lace, and the township icmained in a 
most nt'glecti'd condition for a long [»ei-iod. In 1708, 



there were only three families in Lawrencetown ; 
500 acres were cleared, and 19,500 were woodland. 
At intervals a Scotcli or German family would pur- 
chase a small farm and settle down to hard work, 
but in the year 1N0<S there were only fifty inhabi- 
tants in the whole settlement. 

Previous to the date of the first grant, a few 
French families had doubtless occupied the vicinity 
of Lawrencetown. Murdoch, in his History of 
Nova Scotia, (vol. II, p. 210), says that in 1752, 
Mr. Morris, the surveyor, had gone to what was 
tlien culled Musquodol)oit — now Lawrencetown and 
Chezzetcook — escorted by Capt. Lewis and twenty 
rangers. Mon-is, in his report to the governor, 
nicntioiied the ruins of a French settlement, at what 
is now Lawrencetf)wn, and iinother at Chez/etcook. 
At Lawrencetown he Found the stones of two chim- 
neys lying on the grouu«l whore the houses had been 
burnt down, two thatched barns made of logs, 
an<l a spring of water. The presence of a French 
settlement at Lawi-encctown, would account for the 
growth there of willow and other trees not native to 
the soil. 

Of tlm original gvantfcs, Benjamin (treen, Jr., 
retained tlie lands b, his own use and bequeathed 
them to his descen hints. He was a son of Benjamin 
C»rcen, Es.<j., government secretary at Louisltourg 




and Jiftorwards memlior of the council at Halifax, 
and treasurer of the ]irovince. Jjcnjaniin Gi-een, Ji-., 
was a man of considerable historical intei'cst : he 
was unanimously elected representative of the 
county of Halifax in 17<S2, and succeeded his father 
as treasurer of the pi-ovince in 17G3.* He died 
suddenly on 2nd Dccemher, 1703, leaving' a widow 
and thirteen children. Of these Heniy% Joseph, 
Susan and Elizabeth settled in Lawrencetown. These 
four are all intimately connected with the mea^^re 
history of the place, and several of their descendants 
still hold and live on the same lands which were 
granted to their p;i-andfather in l7o4. 

Susan Green nia)-ried Capt. Samuel Parkei-, an 
Enfrlishman then servin<]f with his rerriment in 
Halifax, hut who afterwards retired on half-pay 
and settled in Lawi-encetown. Tluy were the 
parents of Capt. William Parker who fell at 
Sebastopol in 1855, during the Crimean War. 

At the public inauguration of the memorial 
erected in 18G0 by the people of Halifax in the 
cemetery opposite (jlovernment House, to the memory 

* Munlocli (vol. II, p. 47.3) s.'iys this was in ITCiS. Coiiipiire, 
liowever, liis wordn on ].age 110 of volume III, with tiiose on tlie 
page just mentioned. For a liio;^niphiciil sketch of the elder 
Benjamin Green, see S<lic/iou.'< from the Puldic Documnils of X. S., 
p. 509. -31. 



of Ciipt. Parker Jind Mitjor Wel.sford, lioth Xova 
Sc()ti;ins wlio fell in the same f^'allant action, the Rev. 
Dr. Hill ffave the i'ullowinjf sketch of the LaAvreiicc- 
town hero : — 

"Ciiiit. Saiiiiii'l Piirkcr of llic (lUli ri'uniiKMit U'.is tl 


1(! ,s\llij(U 

t of tl 

lis VCl'V l)l'U 




lis voiiiiu mail 

was burn ;it l.aun^iicotowii, near Halifax, and was cdiicatcil 
at Hiirtmi Acadoiiiy under the Rev. John i'rvor. His 
mother, who liad Ixicomc a wi(h)W, olitaiiicd a comniis- 


for liini in Octolier, 1S:59. li'c wn 



;i.s ensiini 

in the saiiio rc^dmcnt in whitdi his fatlici' had obtained his 
company, and was for u short time stationc(l in Halifax. 
He was a inciiilicr of tlie .St. (Jcorp,'(!'s Society in tliis town. 
In Fehruarv, ]X\'^, Parian' bcca me lieutenant, and excliau'red 

to tJK! 7SLh Hi<r!il,inden 

For twelve years lit; scrvcij ii 

India, and was promoted as captain to the 77th Reifimcut 
in January, 18.")5. He enjoyed his rank finly a few months. 
On the .'hd of September, he liad an opportunity of sliow- 
inf,' martial bravery, and he fully manifested it. Havinif 
accompanied L'apt. rechell of the, sann' re,Ljiment, a <,^i!lant 
youiii; olllcer, to post souK! sentini'ls in the advance(l breast- 
work lU'ar the lledan, t!ie whole i)aitv, with the exeeptiuii 
of Ca})t. Parker and one man, was killed by the enemy. 
Ifaviiif^f sent this man to report the circumstances, a number 

jf h 


iiaiis rushed out from the ranks to make hii 

a prisoner, when he ably defendeil himself, shot two of 
them with his revolver, and eventually succeeded in bringm^f 
into camp the l)ody of his friend. i'"or his conduci on this 
occasion, he is said to have received the thanks of the 
• 'cneral commanding the li<dit ilivision, and was recom- 

mendeil for the Victoria Ci 


lis })rave soldier 



the linal attack on the Kedan, on the 8th of Se]itember, 
1855, in the thirtv-iifth year of his ai^e 

ieaviii'f a wnlow 

and three infant children to lament his death." 

Elizabeth (Jreen niarrie<l William Stawell, a lieu- 
tenant in an EnoHsh reo-iniont then stationed at 




HaliFiix 'I'Ik'V hnd a son wlio is still livinsf in 
Law) iiicftowii.* 

Josepli (Jix'LMi Mas a niaf,'istrate for tl.e town- 
sliij>, and always lived tiiore. He was never married, 
liut kejit liouse and lia<l a fjood farm at Lawi-ence- 
town, where he dii d alioiit thirty years a.f,'*). 

Henry (Jicen, anoiher son (>f Uenjannn (Jreen.Jr., 
was a lieutenant in tlie Koval Nova Scotia Keiri men t. 
After leavir^ the arniy, he settled in Lawreneetown 
on the estate ^'ranted his fatlier in 1754. He was 
married and had sevei'al children — one was the wife 
of the late William Coleman of Dartmouth. 

With the (Ireen family, is exhausted all the 
personal historicjd intei'est of the townshiji. 

* William >Sttuvfll, Lieutenant OStli Rfgiinciit, horn, 1795, 
in County Cork, Ireland, was son of liev. William .Sta«ell, at one 
time Rector of Kilnialooda, and ncpliuw and sole male lieir of 
Eustace Stawcll, Es(j., of (Joolmain Castle, Co. Coik. 'I'lirough 
the hitter gentleman, he claimed, and was ai.kno\v!edgc<l liy the 
family to he the iieir to the title and estates of Haron Stawell of 
Koinerton, Co. Somerset, England. Lieut. Stawell served under 
Wellington in the I'eninsular War, and ohtained medals for tlie 
battles of Toulouse, Orthez, Pyrenees and Vitoria. He came to 
Nova Scotia in June, hSKi, and married Miss (Jretn, I9th Novem- 
ber, 1817, at Halifax. He had two sons, William Eustace, who 
died unmarried in 1,S7<), and Wennian Ulankley, who still lives at 
Lawreneetown. Lieut. .StawcU died in July, 1808, and is l)uried 
beside his wife, who died in 18.")4, in tiie cemetery at Minesville 
near Lawitncetown His surviving son, Wenman Hlankhy, i.s the 
undoubted heir to the Stawell title and estates. He has two Hf)n3, 
one of whom i.s married and resides in Halifax. — I am indebted 
to A. G. Troop, Es(j. , barrister, for the above information. — A'l/. 



) ' 



L.'iwrencetown is an L'Xcee(liuL,'Iy pretty stretch 
of country, its liarboui' and Iteach are much 
aibnired by tourists. The soil, especially that of the 
nieadowlands, is fertile and yields f^'ood cro[)s. Part 
of tlu! marsh is reclaimed from the sea l»y means 
of a dyke. The followinfj, whicli relates to this 
work, is (juoted from the Jc^urnals of the House of 
Assembly of IS — : "On 4th March, a petition 
of the proprietors and those interested in marsh- 
lands lyin(f on the e.istern riven* of Lawrence- 
town, was presented by Mr. Lawson, praying 
aid in dyking a (piantit^'^ of on that 
river." " On 2oth March, said petition was read, 
and Mr. Lawson moved that it be refei'reil to 
the committee of supply. On division, there appeareil 
twelve for and eighteen against the prayer, so the 
petition was withdrawn." 

Subsequently, those interested in this project — 
persons living in Lawrencetown who were anxious 
to increase the value of their property — proceeded 
with the work of reclaiming the land from the sea, by 
building a dyke at their own expense. William Crook 
and Henry Green were the engineers-in-chief. Their 
energy was equal to every condition, and a large area 
was successfully reclaimed. All things considered, it 
was a work of magnitude and difficulty. Their 
descendants receive, each year, substantial benefit in 



tlic Movi.'r-fjiilin(,'croi) of hay, which, thou^^h of inferior 
(|uality to that of tlie ori^niial inarMh-hind, is still most 
valuaMc for fodder and other farm jnirposes. More 
scientific engineers, in om- own day, nn'jffht learn some 
valuahle lessons, which would ffuide them in greater 
enterprises, by a study of the work of William C'l'ook 
and Henry (Jreen at Lawrencetown Dvke — a woi'k 
which is a monument till tliis time of their skill and 

(Jold was first found in Lawrencetown in 1802. 
In common with similar discoveries in the county of 
Halifax, it was supposed that the presence of the 
precious metal would at once insure the pi-ospei-ity 
of the settlement. Both alluvial and quartz mines 
were worked for several years in an intermittent 
way at Lawrencetown and also at Chezzetcook. 'J'he 
results were the same at hoth places. Minei's were 
kept alternately in a state of hope and <lespondency. 
A good find was followed hy days and weeks of 
disappointment. Three crushers were established 
at L iwrencetown, but their returns were unsatisfac- 
tory. More money was spent in opening the mines 
than Mas ever afterwards taken out of them ; and 
whatever niay be in stoi-e for the future pros- 
pector, the result up to this date has been most 

.I"i" 1 


iriHToIiV (ir hAWUKXClCTdWN. 

Ovor the lotifj from Lawroncotown to Dart- 
iiioiitli, the farmers or their wives drive week l)y 
week witli produce for the Halifax market. Their 
butter, vejL^etalth'S, and poultiy arc always highly 
esteemed. (Jammnti's hutter at one tiui" had as ^'ood 
u local reputation as the " <,nlt-edif('d " h;is in the 
American market. 

The people of Lawi-cm-etown are mostly Presby- 
terians, 'i'liev have a church and i-csident minister. 
The inhabitants nov»' ari,' principally the descendants 
of Scotch and German families, and verv few remain, 
in a direct line, of the twcMity jiropi'ictois who 
once owned Lawrencctown. The (iammons, Hissctts, 
Robinsf)ns, Ciilescs, Morashes, and Lawlors, aic aniont,' 
the oldest and liest known names in the townslii[). 

The farm latids ain; more fertih^ in a[»pearaiice 
than most in Halifax C(auity. At many points the 
scenerv is \ei'v beautiful. The iiroxiinitv of the 
place to the sea, with its fresh, ln'iny air, sandy 
beach, and ceaseless rliN'thm of restless waves, all 
unite to make Lawrencctown a most pleasant resort. 

About New Year, 17f>S, the seliooui'r Hero, 
Tliomas Cunnin^diam, master, was driven by Uwn- 
pestuous weather into (.'ole Harboui'. lie and his 
ci'ew received tlie most ^^encirous treatment from 
Mr. Mundy, an a<,a'd man inhabiting a cottaije there, 
wiio j^ave them all the provi.sions he had stored up 

roi.E iiAnnnun. 


for rbe use of his family throu<^'lu)Ut the winter.. 
These; snjjplies C'iiiiniii<.fliiim received on board Iuh 
vessel, iiiid thou started for Sahlo Island, where on 
14tli December, before bein^ blown oft' his course, he 
had seen about thirty men making' appeals for help. 
At that time he had been unable to render assistance, 
as the storm had i)i-evented him from reachiiiL' the 
island. Now on his return, he found that the men 
had been i-eseued by another vessel. Mr. Munvly's 
^'enerous conduct deserves to bo extolled, in honour 
of himself and Cole Harbour. 

Cole Harbour settlement is a pretty part of the 
township of Lawrencetown. The InVliway Ieadln<^ 
thither passes over some steep hills and often ulon^f 
the very edge of the water. There are some tine 
farms there, and good seii fishing. One of the first in the place was built by Mi-. Thomas 
Beamisli, giandfather of Dr. Thomas Beamish Akins 
of the Record Commission of Nova Scotia. It was 
part of tlie Mai-oon estate which extended across the 
country to Cole Harbour. The Ikjusc was long and 
low, completely shaded by trees, and very gloomy in 
appearance. Col. John Stewart, a I'etired army officer, 
lived there for many ycai's.* He married a 

* In nil old map drawn on paper water-marked 1795, Col. 
Stewart's house is shown on the west side of the western l)oundary 
of Lawrencetown, and close to whei-e Smelt Brook flows into Cole 
Harbour. — Ed, 




Ko^'^'s, sistoi" of tlio lato Thoiniis l>o^f(s, Sciii'. 
Stewart wns u tnosfc cheerful uiid kindly man, 
lios|tital)lo in tlir cxtreine, and a ^'reat favourite 
with his nt'i^ddiours. 

Cole Harbour fir many years had a meeting- 
house which was used by all donomitiations for the 
worship of (}()d. Some years a^o, the menihei's of 
the Church of En^^dand erected a small church vvhi(!h 
IS now used freijuently. They have a resident 
clerfiyman who has charf,'o of this and the East«'rn 
Passa;,'e congrc'^^'atlons. 

A f:freat deal of money has been expended at Cole 
Harboui', in the emleavour to dyke a portion of the low 
harbour land.* Several unsuccessful attempts having 
been made, the work was at last tho\jnfht to be 
perfect, but the sea rushed in an<l the whole under- 
taking was ruined. After these repeated failures, 
the d^d^o is at present established, but only small 
portions of tlu^ land have been reclaimed. The 
(juality of the grass raised on the dyke is inferior, 
and the undertaking ha.s not met with the success 
anticipated, nor by any means repaid the promoters 
for their outlay. 

* An act to incorporate the Cole Ilarljonr Dyke Company, waa 
passed in March, 1845. (Vide Acts of that date, cap. 33). — Ed. 



Aoiiili.'uis It'iul iittiick nil 1) , 11. 

/\tiii'ric'iiii citKcciM lit I'rcntoii, l,*"). 

Alli'ii ftiul Siiiynt'i'M tanyanl, 108. 

Aiiii''x V MiriNi's, !i"i;iil(nit, .^7. 

/Vnvillc'.s, Due d', exjiocjition, 5, 
10, 'JO. 

Axo mill 1 iiMur ciimpiiiiy, (15. 

I'.MpiiHt ('liiiicli in l> . S") 

MciimiMh 'riiom.'vs, 2 w. 

lU^iiiiet'H >('li(ii)l iioir .\lltiir» tan- 
yanl, HI. 

l'.li)i;k-h(.iiHi) lit I)., .S <l; lit L.,'2-1S. built, .'"•.'1. 

HiewciV, T , f. rrv, ■l^. 

Biick-yiiid, I'rfscuttit Mntt'.n, !):? ; 
Petoia iiiid liliicklnck's 'M. 

liridgt! iicrns.s I liirln.ur, V.K 12:>. 

liriiiley, (J. IJ , 110 

lirook Hi(ii«o, liti. Stju iilsd I'Miiyoi' 

Ciiiml, SliubuiiiiCJidio. .Sno Sliuhoii- 

Cemetery, Church of Kn^l^md, 70; 
imlilic; 7'.i; R. Citholic, 81, x->. 

Chiiiiil)(!ilaii), T., and faiiiilv, 2.'), 

171, r.m. 

C/iehiirtii built, 51. 

Chebucto Marine Kaihva\ , 12.'. 

Chesapeake nej;roi'.i, 187. 

Clirist thiirch, 71 ; rectorn, 78. 

Church of Kiigland in IJ. , 70 ; in 
Preston, I'Jt. 

Churcli Hill, Preston, 194. 

Church histiirv, Durtniouth, 70 ; 
Pioston, 19i, 

Clarence, Kot, If), i)0. 

Cole Harbour, 2"i(), dyke, 258. 

Coleman, Seth, 22. 

Colley, (loorge. 220. 

Common, Dartmouth, 20. (JO. 

Connor's, John, ferry. 17, .'tO, -42 

Cow Kay, 80. 

Creighton family, 45. 

Creighton'H or Lower Ferry 44, 47. 

I>an.ieville, (i(jvernor, 131, I'M. ' 

Dartmouth founded. 7 ; attacked, 
10; iiopulatiim (1752) IC, (17r>2) 
10, (1871) (iO, (1887) (i(i. (I8'.ll),(i',); 
whalers settle, 10; conimon, 20, 
00; incorporated, (15; water sup- 
ply, G7 ; sewerage, G8 ; electric 
lights, C8. 

/)'irlm»iith,f>b-:\m^>i'n^, built, !)'. 

I'liitmoiith Ji'itieM ,'c Mti^jimierH, (i!l. 

I>esl'.ris.v, Uev. M. H., 7.i. 

Dunciin, Forf, l?lark Kock.dO. 

I)ust;in, (!. (t., 112. 

FiiiRtern I'assngo. 80, 

Kleotr c light in I)., (18, 

Fairbanks. C W.. .S4 

FidrhiuikH, .fiihn K., 92. 

I''iiirliiiiiks. Ij. p., l)iiyHeiiial .'!(», 

Ferry e-italili-hed, 17, 30; aHsigr)e<l 
to Wynne k .Maii'lmrne, 12, 43 ; 
J. R''.ck. 43 ; .1. Sk. rry. 44, 4ii ;, ,50 ; Sir (' O'/ff :w\ 
J)ti.rir built, .53 ; Mirimir iind 
Clirltiicliihwilf. 54; new eimipany. 
55; Ddi'tianiith built, 55; coiM- 
missiou formed, 5li ; aeeidenf. on 
arrival of Annex i' {Ilnlifd.e), 57. 

Ferry, rVeightonH or L'uver, 41; 

Findbiy, 47 ; I'rcwer, 48. 
Ferry at north end, 19, .59. 
Findlay's, J., ferry, 47 
Fire engine coini)anv, 05. 
l''olger, Timothy, 19, 20. 
Floyer. Margaret, 108, 131, 
l'"ree negroes, loti. 
French prisoners at D., 00 at 

Preston, 1,58. 
( Jf-rinans picket !)., lO. 
( Joverndr's (Went worth's) f:ui!i, 

(iray. Rev. 15. (J., 1(;.5, lOD 
(ireen f.iniily, 177, 2.5il, 
Hiiil capturiid by Indiiins, l.'i. 
Hall, Frai,eis, 29. .SO. 
Hart, SHninol, 180. 
Hilclreth, !s!>ac. 2.5. 
Howy,Capt.. in charge of Maroons, 


lce-cuttins{ 120 
Indians, 5, 7, 8, 10. 
Industries, present, of I),, 112 
lii-lis. Rev. C., 72 141 
Inbmd Navig ti'<n < 'o , 3<. 
.Iolii:stoiie, Hon. J. \V . o;). 
.Fones c'lil Ireii drowned, 115 
Jordiin, William, 200. 
Katzniann. Lieut. C. C, 182. 
Lake & River Navigation Co., 35. 




Liiwreucetowii gi'iinteil. 247; troops 
witlidiawii. '249 ; dyked, 254 ; 
gold discovured, 255. 

Lawsoii, Mrs. W illiani, Ib.S 

Loon, Lake, 227. 

Lower Ferry. See Creiglitoii's 

Lyle & Cliii[)el, shipyiirds (^f, (i;3. 

.Maci' ,ial(l, l)r., (li!ia}>i)eitiB, 14(i. 

Jiutil of the Mill, first vessel built 
in D., (W. 

Manor Hill, 101. 

^Maroon Had, 105, 170. 

Maroons, Kil. 

Miiyniiril's Lake, 101. 

Meaghur childien lost in woods, 224. 

Meclimdcs' Institntrt building, 04. 

Methodist Church, b7. 

Mkriiac built, 54 

Mill, Hartslionie'«&Treniaine'K,02. 

Molyneu.x, Mary. 241. 

Montagu, Col. (ioorge, 2;3i). 

Montagu gold mines, 240. 

Morris, Cliarles, and fam'iy, 227. 

Mott family, 93, 97, 218. 

Monnt Hope Asylum, 94. 

Mount An^elia, 99. 

Mtmn Edward, 110. 

Mozanzien, Mr., 144, 

Mundy, Mr. , 250. 

Nantucket whwlers, 19, 20. 

NegroeH from Chesapeake Bay, 
187 See also Free negroes, 

Ochterlony. A., 16.3, 171. 

Oldmixon, Sir John, 241. 

Parker. Capt., 251. 

Port.ibello House, 103. 

Post Office, 69. 

Potteiy works, Hornsby's 94. 

Presbyterian Church, 00, 82. 

Preseott family, 93. 181. 

Presti.. . grai.ted, 151, gran'ets, 
152, 157 ; church hi.'-'tory. 194 

Prince Aithur's Park, 100. 

Pyke scalped, 12. 

(Quaker mettiiig-house, 22 ; ceme- 
tery, 79. See also Nantucket 

t^uarrell. W. D., 102, 103, 170. 

Railway, 123. 

Keri ding-room, 07. 

Kefiiievy. See Woodside. 

Hock's, J., ferry, 43. 

Roman Catholic Church, 79. 

Hopewalk. 118. 

Uussell family and murder of 
Mary R, 125, 1«5. 

St. James's Church, 82. 

St. John's Parish, 70. 

St. Peter's Chapel, 79. 

Saw-mill (Gilnian's) in I), cove, 4. 

Schools, 67. 

Sewerage of D., 68. 

Shiels, Andre.w, 101. 

Shipyards of Lyle k Chapel. 03. 

tShubeniicadie Canal, 24-38 ; begun, 
31 ; Inlarid Navigation Co , .33 ; 
opened, 34 ; Luke & Hiver Navi- 
gation Co , 35 ; I. ought by L. P. 
Fairliiiiiks, 30 ; e.vpuiise, 37. 

Siv Charlfi ikih: built, 53. 

Skerry's, .F , firry, 44, 40. 

Soiith and son die in Btorni, 221. 

Smith, Titus, and faunly, 157. 205. 

Starbuck, S., 19, 20. 

.St.irr Manufacturing Co . 114 

Stawell, Lieut., and family, 2.53. 

Steam-boat Co., 50. See also Ferry. 

Stewart, Col. John, 257. 

Tales of D., 125 ; Freston. 221. 

Tanviiril, Stayncr & Allen's, 108. 

Team-boat, 50. 

Thompson, Lt.-Col. G. F., 232. 

Truro post-road, 103. 

Union protection co., 65. 

Water sup[)ly of D., 07. 

Waverley, 104. 

Wentworth's farm at Preston, 220. 

Westphal, .vdmiral P., 201 ; Sir 
(i. A., 203. 

Wlialiis. See Niintuckot whalers. 

Windmill Ro^.d. 103. 

Wcodliiwn Cemetery, 13, 109, 130, 
14!, 150, 220 

Woo.lside and Woodside Uefintry, 
92, 112. 

Wynne & Manthorne's ferry, 42, 43.